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PUBLISHED BY THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FO UND ATION, NE W YORK, 1970 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CARD CATALOGUE NUMBER: 75-I383O4 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS 



Participating Institutions 



< INCINATTI ART MOM U M 



ART GALLERY OF ONTARIO, TORONTO 



THE DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS 



Chairman of the Board, harry f. Guggenheim 



Q 

Z President, peter o. lawson-johnston 

O 



H. H. ARNASON 



ELEANOR, COUNTESS CASTLE STEWART 



HENRY ALLEN MOE 



BILL D. MOYERS 



A. CHAUNCEY NEWLIN 



MRS. HENRY OBRE 



DANIEL CATTON RICH 



ALBERT E. THIELE 



MICHAEL F. WETTACH 



CARL ZIGROSSER 



Lenders 



PATRICK BAILLY-COWELL, Paris 

pierre ANDRE benoit, Ales, France 

ROSAMOND BERNIER COLLECTION, New York 
COLLECTION MR. AND MRS. LEONARD M. BROWN, 

Springfield, Massachusetts 

rene cavalero, Marseille 

MR. and MRS. Arthur A. COHEN, New York 

simone collinet, Paris 

PEDRO vallenilla echeverria, Caracas 

MR. AND MRS. BAYARD EWING : ' 

Lilian H. florsheim, Chicago 

HENRI GOETZ AND CHRISTINE BOUMEESTER, Paris 

leon jerusalmi, Le Vesinet, France 

Robert lebel, Paris 

MRS. M. VICTOR leventritt, New York 

MRS. barnett malbin, Birmingham, Michigan (The Lydia and 
Harry Lewis Winston Collection) 

n. manoukian, Paris 

alex maguy, Paris 

MENIL FAMILY COLLECTION 

m. von meyenburg, Basel, Switzerland 

THE HONORABLE DAVID MONTAGU, London 

MR. AND MRS. ROBERT MOTHERWELL, New York 

andre napier, Neuilly, France 

MR. AND MRS. MORTON G. NEUMANN, Chicago 

succession picabia, Paris 

olga picabia, Paris 

lucienne radisse, Paris 

mr. and mrs. neil reisner, Scarsdale, New York 

MADAME SUZANNE ROMAIN, Paris 

professor guido rossi, Milan 

HERBERT AND NANNETTE ROTHSCHILD COLLECTION, 

New York 



MR. and MRS. Arnold saltzman, Great Neck, New York 

mrs. william sawyer, Buffalo, New York 

MR. AND MRS. FRED shore, New York 

Maurice Sternberg, Chicago 

jacques tronche, Paris 

PRINCE IGOR troubetzkoy, Paris 

DR. max Welti, Zurich 

GALERIE HENRI BENEZIT, Paris 
GALERIE CAVALERO, Cannes 
hilde gerst gallery, New York 

GALERIE DENISE RENE, Paris 

schwarz gallery, Milan 

GALLERY GERTRUDE STEIN, New York 

weyhe gallery, New York 

albright-knox art gallery, Buffalo, New York 

THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 

THE ARTS CLUB OF CHICAGO 

THE BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART 

THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, New York 

kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland 

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, New York 

moderna museet, Stockholm 

musee national d'art moderne, Paris 

MUSEE DE PEINTURE ET DE SCULPTURE, Grenoble 

museum of art, Carnegie institute, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania 

the museum of MODERN art, New York 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY ART COLLECTION 

PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART 

THE TATE GALLERY, London 

YALE university art gallery, New Haven, Connecticut 






/ 






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Pref; 



ace 



FRANCIS PICABIAis firmly placed in the history 
of modern art. Students concerned with twentieth-cen- 
tury painting become instantly attentive at the mention 
of his name which is linked so closely to key issues and 
situations in the modern era. Much as Kandinsky, Malc- 
vitch, Kupka, Delaunay and Mondrian, Picabia is thought 
of as one who formulated the concept of abstraction in 
art, not primarily through theoretical discourse, but 
through convincing and powerfully self-revealing works. 
His name is also linked with the Armory Show - this 
startling and, in retrospect, ever more decisive event, 
which in 191 3 brought the images of the early twentieth- 
century to a continent whose technological avant-gar- 
dism, until then, had no visual counterpart. Later, in the 
same decade, Picabia and Marcel Duchamp, both based 
in New York, made their provocative anti-art gestures 
and became thereby the American faction of the inter- 
national Dada movement. 

But despite such intensive, pioneering engagement, 
Picabia's work, unlike that of Kandinsky, Mondrian or 
Duchamp, is almost unknown to the general public, and 
familiar as idea more than as a pictorial sequence, even to 
those immediately concerned with modern painting. 
Thus, we note a curious discrepancy between Picabia's 
accepted historic significance and the general lack of fa- 
miliarity with the main body of his contribution as a 
painter. This first museum survey of his work in New 
York is, therefore, proposed as a means by which such 
contradictions may be eliminated or at least reduced. 

To attempt this, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Mu- 
seum has secured the collaboration of an outstanding 
Picabia scholar, Dr. William A. Camfield, Associate Pro- 
fessor in the Fine Arts Department of Rice University 
Houston, who as Curator of the Exhibition has made the 
current selection and prepared the catalogue contents. It is 
obvious that only someone who, like Dr. Camfield, had 
spent years familiarizing himself with Picabia's seeming- 
ly sporadic and visually discontinuous oeuvre, could effec- 
tively achieve a full exposition of the artist's creative lega- 
cy. It is equally clear that no such effort could have suc- 
ceeded if the principal Picabia collectors and owners had 



not cooperated so wholeheartedly. The lenders' list in 
this catalogue gives some indication of the wide spread 
of Picabia's work throughout the world, and reveals at 
the same time the extreme generosity of many individ- 
uals and institutions toward Picabia, as well as toward 
the organizing institution. The Guggenheim Museum, 
therefore, takes great pleasure in acknowledging its own 
indebtedness, as well as that of other participating mu- 
seums that have benefited from the lenders' willingness 
to make their paintings available for our common pur- 
pose. We are particularly grateful to the three widows 
of Francis Picabia - Mme. Olga Picabia, Mme. Gabrielle 
Buffet-Picabia and Mme. Germaine Everling-Picabia 
for loans, catalogue documentation, and for much self- 
less aid that has taken many forms during the years when 
this exhibition and the accompanying catalogue were in 
their preparatory state. The artist's daughter, Mme. 
Jeannine Bailly-Cowell, should also be mentioned in this 
same context and is equally entitled to our gratitude. 

The suggestion to attempt a survey of Picabia's oeuvre 
first came to the Guggenheim Museum from Mr. Samu- 
el J. Wagstaff, Jr., now Curator of Contemporary Art 
at The Detroit Institute of Arts. It is, therefore, particu- 
larly gratifying to know that his institution as well as the 
Art Gallery of Ontario and the Cincinatti Art Museum 
are participating in the current presentation of Picabia's 
art in America. Finally, I should mention the effective 
part played throughout the preparatory stages by various 
departments of this museum, and particularly that of 
Diane Waldman, Associate Curator, her assistant Linda 
Shearer and Carol Fuerstein who edited the catalogue. 
In addition I would like to acknowledge the contri- 
butions of a number of other individuals on behalf of 
the Curator of the Exhibition. They are lenders: Mme. 
Simone Collinet, Arturo Schwarz and Herbert and Nan- 
nette Rothschild; individuals whose long-range support 
has been essential in making this exhibition possible: 
Marcel Duchamp, George Heard Hamilton, Pierre An- 
dre Benoit, M. Poupard-Lieussou, Francois Chapon, 
Conservateur, Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques Doucet, 
Donald Gallup, Conservator, Yale Collection of Ameri- 
can Literature, Bernard Karpel, Librarian, Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, and Michel Sanouillet; and 
others who have been extremely helpful: Mme. Yvonne 
Gresse, M. R. de Zayas, Mrs. Rose Fried, M. Romic, Mr. 
and Mrs. John de Menil Mrs. Pamela Rentfro and Mile. 
Dominique Bouissou. Dr. Camfield also wishes to express 
his gratitude to the American Council of Learned Socie- 
ties, the American Philosophical Society and the Art 
Department of the University of St. Thomas, Houston 
for their support. 

Thomas M. Messer, Director 



Picabia Aphorisms 



If you want to have clean ideas, change them as often as you change your shirts. 

A conviction is a disease. 

There is only one way to save your life: sacrifice your reputation. 

One must go through life, be it red or blue, stark naked and accompanied by the 
music of a subtle fisherman, prepared at all times for a celebration. 

We are not responsible for what we do; we are ignorant of our acts until we accomplish thei 

When I have finished smoking, I am not interested in the butts. 

Crime is less criminal than human justice. 

What improves our personality represents what is good; what harms it represents evil. 
That's why God has no personality. 

There's nothing modern about making love; however, it's what I like to do best. 

Everything for today, nothing for yesterday, nothing for tomorrow. 



* 



Francis Picabia 



Francis Picabia - painter, poet, polemicist, bon vivant - 
poses problems for any serious exhibition. His work was 
motivated by personal aims often indifferent to time, pub- 
lic taste and technical proficiency. His extravagant con- 
duct generated fabulous tales and a credulous audience 
more concerned with the myth than with the man. Little 
wonder that most critics, distracted by Picabia's behavior 
and baffled by the seemingly unpredictable, incompatible 
range of style and quality in his work, declined or despair- 
ed of a comprehensive evaluation. Only a handful of 
family and friends perceived the life-long wholeness of 
the man and his work. 

Francois Marie Martinez Picabia was born on or about 
January 22, 1879, in Paris. He was the only child of a Span- 
iard, Francisco Vicente Martinez Picabia, and his French 
wife, Marie Cecile Davanne. Both parents came from 
distinguished families, and Picabia was raised in an afflu- 
ent bourgeois household.' Marie Davanne's death in 1886 
left a headstrong lad in the care of his father, grandfather, 
uncle and doting servants. He was spoiled beyond meas- 
ure, and, excepting his skill in drawing, became known 



Details of Picabia's birth and ancestry remain unclear despite 
serious research (see Michel Sanouillet, Francis Picabia et 397, 
Paris, vol II, pp. 16-17, 2 4-6-47)- His birth was "declared" in 
the second arrondissement of Paris on January 24, 1S79 (let- 
ter to the author from the Archives du Departement de la 
Seine et de la Ville de Paris, September 10, 1963). His pater- 
nal grandfather, Juan Martinez Picabia (1798-1858) of La 
Coruha, married Josefa Delmonico (1818-1880) of Switzer- 
land in New York in 1S40. That grandfather prospered as a 
planter in Cuba before returning to Spain where he became 
a principal figure in the construction of the Madrid-La Co- 
runa railroad, a service for which he was honored by the Span- 
ish government (data based on information supplied by 
Picabia'shalf-sister, Mme. Yvonne Gresse, and on unpublished 
legal documents in her possession drawn up for Picabia's 
grandmother, Josefa Delmonico, on December 7, i860, by 
an agent of the Colegio de Notarios Escribanos R de Madrid). 
Picabia's father, Francisco Vicente Martinez Picabia (1847- 
1929), moved from Havana to Paris where in 1878 he mar- 
ried the daughter of Alphonse Davanne, a wealthy business- 
man and distinguished amateur photographer who reported- 
ly worked with Daguerre. A bachelor brother living in the 
household, Maurice Davanne, was Conservator of the Bi- 
bliotheque Sainte-Genevieve and a collector of the paintings 
of Felix Ziem and Ferdinand Roybert. 



in the lycee solely for feats of physical strength and pre- 
cocious experiences with night clubs and alcohol. 

Traditional accounts of Picabia's youthful work are 
not completely reliable, but he was a facile draughtsman 
and claimed an instinctive vision of art as an intensely 
personal, subjective activity. To his grandfather's predic- 
tion that painting would be made obsolete by color 
photography, Picabia recalls he responded: "You can 
photograph a landscape . . . but not the forms that I have 
in my head." 2 

In 1895 Picabia entered the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs 
and studied there until, according to family tradition, he 
embarked in 1897, at the age of 18, on his first of many 
amorous adventures. 3 In 1899 he made his debut at the 
conservative Salon des Artistes Francaises. Contrary to 
popular belief, he was not at that time painting as an Im- 
pressionist in emulation of Sisley and Pissarro. For several 
more years he was a student of Ferdinand Humbert, Al- 
bert Charles Wallet and Fernand Cormon, and until the 
winter of 1902-03 he seems to have produced only two 
types of paintings - delicate watercolors of Spanish 
figures (no. 2) and modest landscapes in a post-Barbizon 
manner (no. i). 4 

2 Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia, "Picabia, l'inventeur," L'Oeil, Paris, 
June 1956, p.32. 

3 Standard accounts of this event, based on Picabia's later mem- 
ory of it, record that he fled to Switzerland at the age of 
eighteen (1897) with the mistress of a prominent Parisian 
journalist (Buftet-Picabia, Aires abstraites, Geneva, 1957, p.20). 

4 Picabia's mistaken or misunderstood recollections of these 
years have promoted general acceptance of unsubstantiated 
data. Contrary to most accounts, there is no reliable record 
of his work at any salon before 1899; there is no indisputably 
documented Impressionist painting in his oeuvre before 
1902-1903 and he could not have met in Switzerland during 
1897-1S98 either Nietzsche or any members of Pissarro's 
family (correspondence with Paul-Emile Pissarro, Mme. 
L. R. Pissarro, Mile. Orovida Pissarro, John Rewald and W. 
S. Meadmore). In the first extant account of these years (Ga- 
lerie Haussmann, Picabia, Paris, February 10-25, !9°5)> L. 
Roger-Miles stated that, despite modest success at his first 
Salon, Picabia's "frequent visits to the Salon made him rea- 
lize the effort still necessary in order to be master of his form 
and of his craft; and he went to the studio of Cormon and 

Humbert to draw academic figures ". All translations from 

the French by author. 



The turning point in Picabia's career "occurred at the 
end of 1902 when he met Georges and Rodo Pissarro. 
Their father, the aged Camille, reported to another son, 
Lucicn: 




Fig. 1 Francis Picabia: 

Sunrise in the Mist, Montigny II. 1906. 

Oil on composition board, 12 7 / s x 16" (32.7 x 40.6 cm.). 

Private collection, Italy. 



He [ Rodo] tells me that they are in the company of a student 
oj Cormon [Picabia], Tbis young man is extraordinary, he 
makes quantities of nature studies by the procedure in use in 

the schools He takes no account of the air, of the light, 

and be paints everything in a uniform brown! in the Midi! 
When he has thus made a number of drawings, be begins 
his Salon painting, a canvas of two meters after having 
made, by means of photography, the motif which suits him. 5 

Despite this inauspicious beginning, Picabia became a 
friend of the Pissarros and an ardent convert to Impressio- 
nism. For the first time he began to exhibit at Bcrthe 
Weill's avant-garde gallery and in the liberal salons in 
Paris. 6 Critical notice there led in 1905 to a contract with 
the fashionable Galerie Haussmann, followed by exhibi- 
tions throughout Europe and the patronage of some of 
the most distinguished collectors and public figures in 
France. 7 

Picabia's prodigious production as an Impressionist is 
revealed by three one-man exhibitions, each of them pre- 
faced by L. Roger-Miles who suggests an evolution in 
Picabia's work through three modes that may be con- 
sidered as analytical Impressionism, subjective Impres- 
sionism and Neo-Impressionism. The last variety was 
developed during the latter half of 1908; the first modes 
coexisted throughout 1903-08, although a documentary, 
analytical approach to nature dominated during 1903-05 
and a more subjective mode prevailed in 1906. Chest- 
nut Trees (no. 6) is a late example of the documentary 
mode prevalent in Picabia's 1905 exhibit at the Galerie 
Haussmann. He chose a specific, commonplace site, 
framed it informally and employed an Impressionist pal- 
ette and brush technique to capture the fleeting qualities 
of that specific site in an instant of time. Nature seems to 
be neither ordered nor dramatized by the artist, but re- 
corded by an objective observer. The contrary is true of 



John Rewald (Ed.), Camille Pissarro, Lettres a sou Fits Lucien, 
1943, pp.496-97. 

Berthe Weill (Pan! dans I'Oeil! . . . , Paris, 1933, p. 105) opened 
her 1904-05 season with an exhibition of the work of Picas- 
so, Picabia, Raoul Duty, Pierre Girieud and Gaston Thiesson. 
In 1903 Picabia first participated ill both the Salon des Inde- 
pendauts and the Salon d'Automne. 

After the spectacular success of his first exhibition at the Ga- 
lerie Haussmann, Picabia participated in numerous group 
exhibitions and had one-man shows in Berlin and London. 
His patrons included the French government and Raymond 
Poincare, future President of the French Republic. 



Sunrise in the Mist, Montigny II (fig. i) where Picabia - 
according to his custom - restudied a familiar site (no. 3) 
in a manner that appears less concerned with optical data 
than with sensuous manipulation of colored pigment to 
express a mood generated by nature. In the preface to 
Picabia's 1907 exhibition at the Galerie Haussmann, 
Roger-Miles wrote that nature: 

presents itself to us with successive and infinitely varied 
harmonies; one must trap its character in a synthesis both 
lifelike and expressive; . . . And in order to reveal all of 
this to us, it is necessary that . . . the landscapist be one 
moved by emotions [un emotif]; it is necessary that he "in- 
terprets" not that he "copies"; it is necessary that his work 
reflects his own sensation, and not only the image of that 
which strikes his retina without having a reverberation in 
his soul.* 

Roger-Miles employed musical analogies to justify 
departure from reality in Picabia's paintings, and referred 
to the artist as "the virtuoso, seated at his clavier, picking 
notes ..." Though hardly new, these late nineteenth- 
century Symbolist-Synthesist concepts merit emphasis, 
for they formed the basis of Picabia's esthetic convictions 
the remainder of his life. Art was conceived not as the 
representation of the appearance of nature, but as the 
equivalent of one's emotional experience of nature - an 
equivalent secured by orchestrating the autonomous and 
symbolic properties of form and color. 

In his Neo-Impressionist canvases of late 1908 - early 
1909, Picabia turned toward the rigorous structuring of 
nature exhibited in The Church at Montigny and View of 
St. Tropez from the Citadel (nos. 7 and 8). When these 
paintings were presented at the Galeries Georges Petit in 
March 1909, Roger-Miles again utilized musical analo- 
gies in describing Picabia's work as an art of synthesis 
- but he stressed that it had become a deliberate synthesis 
of the visible and of "significant form" rather than an 
impetuous synthesis of the visible and one's emotional 
response to it. 

Picabia's career as a celebrated Impressionist ended 
abruptly during the winter of 1908-09. The break was a 
bitter surprise for his dealer and patrons, but it had been 
building for some time in a Picabia unknown to the public, 
a restless Picabia acquainted with more daring contem- 
porary work, experimenting quietly on his own and 
armed with esthetic convictions which pointed toward 
abstract art. Tree (fig. 2) and Portrait of Mistinguett (no. 9) 
reflect this aspect of Picabia during his Impressionist 
period. They also introduce his life-long proclivity for 




Fig. 2 Francis Picabia: 
Tree. c. 1904.? 

Oil on canvas, 21 5 /s x 15" (55 x 38 cm.). 
Formerly Gallery Schwarz, Milan. 



Galerie Haussmann, Picabia, Paris, February 1-15, 1907. 



Fig. 3 Francis Picabia: 

Caoutchouc, c. 1909. 

Watercolor or gouache on paper, 18 x 24 '/s" (45-5 x 61.5 

cm.). 

Collection Mu-.ee National d'Art Moderne. Paris. 




one-of-a-kind paintings that occasionally seem prophetic 
of subsequent developments but are more often aban- 
doned, regardless of their interest. In the fall of 1908, 
however, his inclination to pursue new directions was 
quickened by Gabrielle Buffet, a music student interested 
in the concept of art paralleling music." 

Within a year of his marriage to Gabrielle in January 
1909, Picabia worked through phases of Fauvism, Cubism 
and other forms of abstraction. The Port of St. Trope: 
(no. 11), painted at the beginning of 1909, combines a 
conservative brand of Fauvism with passages of Neo- 
Impressionist brush strokes. Later in the year, Picabia com- 
bined Fauvism with Cubism, considering Cubism, at that 
early date, a concern for basic form complementary to 
the "orchestration essentielle" of Fauve color. His im- 
petuously brushed Landscape (no. 12) exhibits such an 
eclectic blend of faceted or "cubified" forms and intense 
colors that serve both decorative and descriptive ends. 
Before the end of 1909, traditional spatial structure and 
commitment to specific sites gave way to compressed 
space and more highly abstracted forms in such works 
as Path and Landscape at Cassis (nos. 13 and 14). In Abstract 
Landscape (no. 15) these flat, faceted forms pieced together 
like a jig-saw puzzle suggest the imminence of total 
abstraction - a feat often attributed to Picabia in a work 
of about 1909, Caoutchouc (fig. 3). Despite the absence 
of clear reference to natural forms in this somber-toned 
gouache, other critics have insisted that imagery lurks in 



9 Gabrielle Buffet's former teacher, Vincent D'Indy, was in- 
fluenced early in his career by Wagner. He was also acquaint- 
ed with some of the Symbolist poets and painters, shared 
their esthetic convictions and passed these on to his students. 



its cluster of circular forms, 10 and two still lifes (figs. 4 
and 5) do, in fact, suggest that Caoutchouc is also a still 
life, highly abstracted from nature in the manner of his 
landscapes of 1909. 

Though Caoutchouc was at least a darmg venture in 
abstracting at that date, it was not an influential work. 
Picabia did not pursue its abstract possibilities until 1912. 
He left it in the meantime as another of the unique works 
in his career, indeed one of the most solitary, for during 
a portion of 19 10 he lapsed into a vapid naturalistic idiom. 
That unsuspected stylistic shift was quickly superceded 
during the winter of 1910-11 by a second phase of Fau- 
vism evident in Regattas (no. 18), and in an important 
new theme with sexual concerns, Adam and Eve (no. 19). 
Picabia returned to the subject of Adam and Eve in every 
style of his long career, and his interpretations of the sub- 
ject are as diverse as those styles, though erotic rather 
than religious motives always prevailed. In this instance, 
thickly brushed pigment and sensuous colors accentuate 
Eve's teasing as she is poised over her naive victim-com- 
panion. 

By this time critics were noting Picabia's restless, erra- 
tic course through various "modern" styles - and missing 
the single persistent feature of his work, the abiding com- 
mitment to a synesthetic concept of art. He was not a 
convert to Fauvism or Cubism; he merely borrowed 

10 Bernard Dorival (Twentieth Century Painters, trans, by W. J. 
Strachan, New York, 1958, p. 1 16) has been an ardent defend- 
er of the abstraction of Caoutchouc. Buffet-Picabia ("Picabia, 
l'inventeur," p.3 1) calls it a still life, and Philip Pearlstcin (The 
Paintings of Francis Picabia, unpublished Master of Arts thesis, 
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, February 
1955, p. 24) sees it as a bouncing rubber ball. 



Fig. 4 Francis Picabia : 
Still Life. 1909. 

Oil on canvas, 29 x 36 </i" (73.7 x 92 cm.). 
Collection Dr. Richard Huelscnbcck, Locarno. 



Fig. 5 Francis Picabia: 

Still Life. c. 1909? 

Gouache on ragboard, 22 >/z x 18" (57 x 45.7 cm.). 

Collection Herbert and Nannette Rothschild, New York. 





some of their superficial aspects which served his quest 
for a synthesis of the exterior forms of nature and his 
mental-emotional response to them. As sensuous color 
and uninhibited brush techniques were more congenial 
to his ends, he looked more to Fauvism than to the com- 
plex, conceptual, monochromatic work of Braque and 
Picasso during 1909-11. During those very years Picabia 
became a member of the Societe Normande de Peinture 
Moderne, an association composed of Fauve and Post- 
Impressionist artists preoccupied with synesthetic theo- 
ries and the inter-relationship of the arts. Though based 
in Rouen, many Parisians participated in the Societe Nor- 
mande thanks to its proselytizing director and an open, 
active program of exhibitions, lectures and concerts. ' ' 
Contacts with Paris were multiplied after the 191 1 Salon 
des Independants where some of the members met (and 
were duly impressed by) those artists who organized the 
first public manifestation of Cubism - Albert Gleizes, 
Jean Metzinger, Fernand Leger, Robert Delaunay and 
Henri Le Fauconnier. By the fall of 191 1, these "salle 41" 
Cubists and members of the Societe Normande formed 
a single, loosely-defined group - sometimes called the 
Puteaux artists - who were in frequent contact at the 
Closerie des Lilas and the studios of Gleizes, Alexandre 
Mercereau and Jacques Villon. The stylistic influence of 
the Cubists dominated, but some concerns of Societe 

11 The Societe Normande de Peinture Moderne was founded 
in Rouen in 1909 by Pierre Dumont, supplanting an earlier 
organization, Les XXX, also chartered by Dumont in emu- 
lation of the Belgian group Les XX. Exhibitions were char- 
acterized by deliberate combinations of diverse styles, dec- 
orative arts and evening programs in the gallery. The pro- 
gram of their first exhibition ("Exposition de Peinture Mo- 



Normande artists remained prominent, and all of the 
Puteaux artists had some common interests. Few if any 
of them were orthodox Cubists compared to Picasso 
and Braque, the creators of Cubism. In contrast to the 
largely private, intuitive, formal development of their 
work, the Puteaux artists were publicly concerned about 
the intellectual, social and esthetic characteristics of a new 
art for a new era. They engaged in a steady round of ex- 
hibitions, publications and meetings where discussions 
ranged from the latest developments in science and tech- 
nology to the concept of synesthesia, non-Euclidian geo- 
metry and the philosophies of Nietzsche and Bergson. In 
November 191 1 they united for an exhibition in Paris 
where, reminiscent of Societe Normande practices, 
various styles were represented and a series of lectures 
was held in conjunction with the exhibit. 12 The retention 
of these practices helps to account for some of the con- 
fusing features of their second group show, the famous 
Salon de La Section d'Or in October 1912. 

Picabia's role among the Puteaux artists was that of the 
most ardent advocate of a more abstract art supported by 
synesthetic theories and analogies to music. Initially, his 
paintings failed to match the persuasiveness of his theo- 
ries, but during the spring and summer of 1912 he realized 

derne," Salle Boieldien, Rouen, December 20, 1909-January 
20, 1910) included a soprano from Vincent D'Indy's Schola 
cantorum and lectures on Romain Roland and P.-N. Roinard, 
a Symbolist poet of Normandy. Picabia and Marcel Du- 
champ participated in this exhibition. 

12 For additional information see Leonard Hutton Galleries, 
Albert Gleizes and the Section d'Or, essays by William A. Cam- 
field and Daniel Robbins, New York, October 28-Decem- 
ber 5, 1964. 



an engaging personal blend of faceted form and Fauvc 
color which secured him a commanding position in the 
avant-garde, and a close friendship with Apolhnairc." 

Though superficially dependent in Dances at the Spring 
and Procession Seville (nos. 22 and 23) on Cubist ambigui- 
ties of space, light and faceted form, Picabia adapted these 
stylistic elements to his own ends. He coordinated form, 
color, and composition with distinct personal experien- 
ces. The earthen palette and ponderous rhythms ofDances 
at the Spring refer to his observation of two peasant 
girls dancing in the rugged, sun-baked countryside near 
Naples. 14 In Precession Seville, blue, black and gray -colors 
repeatedly selected by Picabia for themes of mystery and 
melancholy - are employed with alooming mass of fig- 
ures to create a Cubist version of Goya's ominous Pil- 
grims of San Isidro. This kaleidoscopic pattern of colored 
planes suggests that a slight turn of the artist's hand would 
demolish the image, leaving pure form and color to carry 
the brooding content of the painting. Picabia did not take 
that step until late in 1912, but when Apollinaire sur- 
veyed the summer work of Duchamp, Delaunay and 
Picabia, he decided that a new, pure art had emerged from 
Cubism, and he hastened to introduce it at the forth- 
coming exhibition of La Section d'Or. 15 

This salon was dominated by Cubism, and has been 
considered the climactic public manifestation of that 
movement - though it may also be viewed as the exhibi- 
tion that marked the fission of Cubism."' Characteristic 
of its Societe Normande heritage was the inclusion of 
other tendencies, decorative arts and a lecture series in the 

13 Picabia and Apollinaire had met as early as 1911, but there 
was no close relationship until the spring and summer of 1912 
when Picabia's paintings as well as his theories expanded 
Apollinaire's recent interest in "pure painting" (Apollinaire, 
"Du Sujet dans La Peinture Moderne," Les Soirees de Paris, no. 
1, February 1912, pp. 1-4). They were together much of the 
summer, alternating serious discussions of art and droll ad- 
ventures. Both men smoked opium at that time. 

14 Apollinaire (Les Peintres cubistes, Paris, 1913, p. 71) attributed 
to Picabia the statement that Dances at the Spring was "the 
realization of a natural plastic emotion experienced in the 
environs of Naples." Butfet-Picabia ("Picabia, l'inventeur," 
p. 33) much later claimed the painting was based on an expe- 
rience during their honeymoon in Spam in 1909. The discrep- 
ancy between these two claims - either of which could be 
correct - is less important than the fact that Picabia was now 
painting without any model other than his memory of an 
event that evidently occurred during his long honeymoon 
journey. 

15 Galerie de La Boetie, Salon de 'La Section d'Or', Paris, Octo- 
ber 10-30, 1912. During the summer in Munich, Duchamp 
produced his famous scries of drawings and paintings on The 
Virgin, The Bride and The Passage of the Virgin to the Bride. At 
the same time in the Valley of the Chevreusc, Delaunay devel- 
oped his Windows and notes on his art which later exerted 
considerable influence on Apollinaire. 

16 For La Section d'Or see Leonard Hutton Galleries, Albert 
Gleizes and the Section d'Or (f.n.12) and the Albright-Knox 



gallery. And at his lecture, Apollinaire spoke on "The 
Quartering of Cubism," stressing particularly the new art, 
orphic Cubism or Orphism. In his booklet, The Cubist 
Painters, written during the Summer and Fall of 1912, 
Apollinaire defined orphic Cubism broadly enough to 
cover those artists he deemed to be working in that man- 
ner - Picasso, Delaunay, Leger, Duchamp and Picabia. 
During the winter of 1912-13, Apollinaire was most ex- 
cited by Delaunay's work and his concept of Orphism 
changed. Pure painting carried to abstraction no longer 
weighed so heavily in his interests - nor in the concerns 
of Delaunay, who abandoned abstract painting in 1913. 
Light, lyricism and simultaneity preoccupied both the 
pamter and the poet, while artists previously associated 
with the movement were marooned on shoals that still 
founder critics and historians. 17 

Picabia hardly noticed. He knew he was on the thresh- 
old of significant, original work, and in January 19 13 
he and his wife embarked as self-ordained cultural mis- 
sionaries to the Armory Show in New York. Memorable 
experiences - beginning on board ship with the popular 
dancer Napierkowska - marked the entire journey. 18 He 
was tremendously impressed by New York and prompt- 
ly undertook some abstract watercolor impressions of 
his experiences. He became an habitue of Alfred Stieg- 
litz's "291," a guest at the soirees of Mabel Dodge, and a 
fascinated spectator of Greenwich Village life - then 
teeming with aspiring painters and poets, with anar- 
chists, union leaders, Negro jazz musicians, free-lovers, 
suffragettes and assorted representatives of the "new 



Art Gallery, Painters of the Section d'Or, catalogue by Richard 
V. West, Buffalo, September 27-Octobcr 22, 1967. 

17 For Orphism see J.-C. Chevalier and L. C. Breunig, "Apol- 
linaire et 'Les Peintres Cubistes,'" La Revue des Lettrcs Mo- 
dcrnes, Paris, 1964, pp. 89-1 12; Guillaume Apollinaire, Les 
Peintres Cubistes, texte presente et annote par L. C. Breunig 
et J.-C. Chevalier, Paris, Hermann, 196s; Robert Delaunay, 
Dn Cubisme a I' Art abstrait, Paris, 1957; Hcrschel B. Chipp, 
"Orphism and Color Theory," Tlie Art Bulletin, New York, 
March 1958, pp. 55-63; and Par Bergman, "Modernolatria" et 
"Simultaneita", Bonniers, Sweden, 1962. 

18 The dances of the attractive Mile. Napierkowska were sugges- 
tive enough to cause her arrest in the United States (uninden- 
tified newspaper clipping, New York, 1913, Mabel Dodge 
Luhan Archives, Yale Collection of American Literature). 
Hereafter the Yale Collection of American Literature will be 
abbreviated to YCAL. 

19 For additional information on Alfred Stieglitz as a photog- 
rapher, editor of Camera Work and guiding spirit of the 
Little Gallery of the Photo Secession (called "291" after its 
Fifth Avenue address) sec Camera Work, New York, 1903-17 
and America and Alfred Stieglitz, edited by Frank, Mumford, 
Norman, Roscnfeld and Rugg, New York, 1934. For Mabel 
Dodge and Greenwich Village life, see Mabel Dodge Luhan, 
Movers and Shakers (vol. Ill of Intimate Memoires), New York, 
1936, and Van Wyck Brooks, The Confident Years, New York, 
1952. 



women."" New Yorkers were equally taken with Pica- 
bia. Next to the paintings of Matisse and Duchamp, his 
Dances at the Spring and Procession Seville (nos. 22 and 23) 
were the most notorious works on exhibit, and he was an 
obliging subject for interviews. Moreover, as the sole 
representative of the European "extremists," and the only 
apologist of "extremist" art who offered serious esthetic 
defense of it, his theories dominated the American press. 
Hutchins Hapgood reported Picabia as saying: 

Nearly all painting . . . has attempted in part at least to re- 
produce objects in nature 

But that is ... exactly what art is not. Art is a successjul 
attempt to render external an internal state of mind or 

feeling 

... There must be technical means by which his ... soul- 
mood is expressed /;; Picabia' s case they are the arrange- 
ment of line and color ...to suggest the equilibrium of static 

and dynamic qualities . . . of mass and balance 20 

Such ideas were not new to America, but given the 

eloquence and charm of Picabia in conjunction with his 
work, they seem to have acquired new significance even 
for artists who claimed similar convictions. 

Two days after the Armory Show closed, Alfred 
Stieglitz opened a one-man exhibition of Picabia's New 
York studies which rekindled public excitement about 
modern art. Vestiges of ships and skyscrapers lingered in 
some of the watercolors, but the more abstract studies 
like Neic York and Negro Song (nos. 25 and 27) became 
headline items for local newspapers, and prizes were 
offered for an explanation of Picabia's widely circulated 
preface to the catalogue. 21 New York and Negro Song are 
abstract insofar as expressive content is projected not by 
identifiable objects, but by form and rhythm, by the 
energetic orange-red of New York and the moody purple 
and brown of Negro Song. However, they are not ab- 
stract in origin or intention, as Picabia sought to convey 
by printing titles on the paintings and by repeatedly 
explaining his aims: 

20 Hutchins Hapgood, "A Paris Painter," The Globe and Com- 
mercial Advertiser, February 20, 1913, p. 8 (reprinted in Camera 
Work, nos.42-43, April-July 1913, pp.49-51). 

Harriet Monroe ("Davidson Sculpture Proves that Artist 
has Ideas," Chicago Sunday Tribune, March 23, 1913, part S, 
p. 5) documents Jo Davidson's defense of Picabia's esthetics, 
and Joan Candoer (Cliicago Examiner, March 28, 1913, p.9) 
recorded Arthur Jerome Eddy's use of the same esthetic ar- 
guments in a lecture at the Art Institute of Chicago. 

21 Picabia's preface or portions of it were quoted in the news- 
papers of New York, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Nash- 
ville and Hartford among others. Mme. Picabia read it to the 
Brooklyn Civitas Club; Frederick James Gregg reprinted it 
in For and Against: Views on the International Exhibition held in 
New York and Chicago (New York, 1913), and essentially the 
same theories were kept before the public by articles in Cam- 



. . . the studies which I have made since my arrival in New 
York . . . express the spirit of New York as I feel it, and the 
crowded streets of your city as I feel them, their surging, 
their unrest, their commercialism / absorb these im- 
pressions then when the spririt of creation is at flood-tide, 

I improvise my pictures as a musician improvises music. 11 

In addition to these New York-inspired scenes, Picabia 
exhibited several paintings based on ship-board expe- 
riences. Images of moving figures are perceptible in one 
of them, Star Dancer and Her School of Dance (no. 28), but 
formal properties are more important, particularly the 
blue, black, buff and gray colors that immediately recall 
Procession Seville. These colors not only create an ap- 
pealing harmony independent of images, but bear con- 
notations of clericalism and melancholy which suggest a 
specific event that had amused Picabia during the 
voyage - a Dominican priest observing a rehearsal of the 
star dancer. 23 

The almost daily contact of Picabia, Stieglitz and Ma- 
rius de Zayas during this exhibition generated enduring 
friendships and mutual stimulation. Picabia's work and 
theories provided exhilarating confirmation of experi- 
ments concerning the nature of art and photography un- 
dertaken by Stieglitz and his associates (especially Marius 
de Zayas). In turn, Stieglitz underscored the idea that a 
machine (the camera) could produce art, and Picabia's 
esteem of Nietzsche was rekindled by Benjamin De 
Casseres, whose articles on that philosopher closely 
approximate Picabia's ideal of life: 

In poetry, physics, practical life there is nothing that is any 

longer moored to a certainty, nothing that is forbidden 

anarchy'? No. It is ... the beatification of paradox, the 

sanctificatiou of man by man Nothing which lasts is of 

value That which changes perpetually lives perpetually 

I desire as many personalities as I have moods . ..." 



era Werk{]\me 1913 special issue), by Arthur Jerome Eddy's 
Cubists and Post-Impressionists (Chicago, 1914, chapter six), 
and by Christian Brinton's Impressions of the Art at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition (New York, 1916, pp. 22-3). 
A prize for translation of Picabia's preface was offered by the 
art staff of The World (New York, March 23, 1913). 

22 Francis Picabia, "How New York Looks to Me," The New 
York American, March 30, 1913, magazine section, p. n. 

23 Buffet-Picabia, "Picabia, l'inventeur," p. 35. 

24 Benjamin De Casseres, "Modernity and the Decadence," 
Camera Work, New York, no. 37, January 1912, pp. 17-19. 
For the concerns of Stieglitz and de Zayas see William B. 
McCormick, "Patrons Vote to Decide Fate of Photo-Seces- 
sion Gallery at No. 291 Fifth Avenue," New York Press, Oc- 
tober 4, 1914, p. 6, and Marius de Zayas and Paul Haviland, 
A Study of the Modern Evolution of Plastic Expression, New 
York, March 1, 1913. 



When Picabia left New York, he had in mint! both a 
gallery modeled after "291" and some of the most im- 
portant paintings in his career. The gallery was short- 
lived, ;s but, after feverish work through the summer, he 
submitted two of his new paintings to the 191 3 Salon 
d'Automne, Udnie (Young American Girl; Dance) and 
Edtaonisl (Ecclesiastic) (nos. 31 and 32). These enormous 
paintings and their mysterious titles stirred considerable 
curiosity. Picabia explained to one critic: 

Udnie is no more the portrait of a young girl than Ed- 
taonisl is the image of a prelate, such as we commonly con- 
ceive them. They are memories of America, evocations from 
there which, subtly opposed like musical harmonies, become 
representative of an idea, of a nostalgia, of a fugitive im- 
pression. 2 " 

A letter to Sticglitz provides the additional informa- 
tion that these paintings are the concentration of several 
of the studies exhibited at "291," and bear titles specifi- 
cally created for them. 27 

Picabia's intentions are more easily followed in Ed- 
taonisl. The alternate letters of this invented word form 
"dans" "etoil" which, when associated with the full title 
Edtaonisl (Ecclesiastitpie), indicate once more the theme of 
celibate priest observing a coquettish dancer. 28 This theme 
is intimately embodied in an introverted composition 
where a cluster of soft, gold and cream-colored shapes is 
embedded in a writhing field of melancholic-clerical blue 
and purple forms. 

The title of its companion piece, Udnie, has not been 
decoded, though it may be an adaptation of Undine. If 
so, it mingles themes of the sea and Mile. Napierkowska 
with those of dancing and young American girls in an 
appropriately extroverted composition where aggressive 
rhythms spring out in metallic, hard-edged color planes 
of blue, white, green and gray. 

The abstraction, quality and originality of these two 
paintings were maintained until the outbreak of the first 
World War in such canvases as Catch as Catch Can, 
"Little" Udnie, Physical Culture and / See Again in Memory 
My Dear Udnie (nos. 33, 34, 35 and 40). Early in 1914, 
during his customary winter sojourn in the Midi, Picabia 
also worked in small watercolors of considerable variety 



(nos. 37-39). All of them were abstract, arid many, like 
French Impetuosity (no. 37), appear charged with sexual 
themes, which by this time had become a major charac- 
teristic of his work. Such themes were revealing reflec- 
tions of a man burdened by an insatiable appetite for 
woman as mother, muse and mistress. Yet his paintings 
were not merely indulgent autobiographical documents; 
the conditions of his personal affairs were transformed 
into abstract compositions suggestive of more universal 
longings, frustration and despair. Perhaps the finest of 
these is / See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (no. 40). 
Clearer reference than usual is made to a sexual theme by 
probing male elements and creamcolored female forms 
somewhat reminiscent of those in Edtaonisl. However, 
far from enshrining a memory of sensuous pleasure, 
Picabia's statement is one of futility. The female forms 
alone are animated by warm colors; the dumb male forms 
express only helpless frustration - a quality effectively 
conveyed by the form and space of this composition: a 
labyrinthine area which compels exploration yet leads 
nowhere, and half-visceral, half-animated plant forms 
that beg to be identified but for the most part remain 
tantalizingly out of reach. 

These "psychological studies," as Picabia called them, 
ended abruptly in 19 14 after the declaration of war and 
his conscription into the French Army. Family influence 
secured him a favorable assignment as a general's chauf- 
feur. However, his incorrigible civilian customs torment- 
ed the general, and all parties were relieved when Pica- 
bia was dispatched to the Caribbean to purchase sugar for 
the army. He embarked in May 1915, but when the ship 
paused in New York he became involved in exciting 
activities there and abandoned the military mission. 

During that summer in New York, he was joined by a 
small colony of French artists including Marcel Duchamp, 
Albert Gleizes and Jean Crotti - all of whom looked to 
America to take up the lead in modern art since France 
was absorbed in war. 2 ' Their notion was not farfetched. 
Modern art had flourished in New York after the Armo- 
ry Show, and the arrival of Duchamp and Picabia stimu- 
lated a new wave of American and French artists who 
gathered at the Arcnsberg salon and at Stieglitz's "291 - 
among them Man Ray, Joseph Stella, Morton Scham- 
bcrg, John Covert, Charles Sheeler, Charles Demuth and 



25 Mme. Picabia described this gallery, L'Oursc, in a letter to 
Sticglitz (November 17, 1913, Alfred Sticglitz Archives, 
YCAL). It opened by the end of the year (Lanteme, Paris, 
January 1, 1914, p. 2) and Jean Coctcau was secured to manage 
its publications (Gil Bias, Paris, December 31, 1913, p. 4), but 
the project was soon terminated. 

26 Le Matin, Paris, December I, 1913, p. I. 



27 Letter from Picabia to Sticglitz, June 16, 1913, Alfred Sticg- 
litz Archives, YCAL. 

28 This compound word was decoded by Philip Pcarlstcin, Tlic 
Paintings of Francis Picabia, (op. cit.) p. 109. 

29 See The New York Tribune, "French Artists Spur on Ameri- 
can Art," October 24, 1915, part IV, p. 2. 



Jean Crotti. 30 While Duchamp was closest to Arensberg, 
Picabia was particularly involved with "291" during a 
period of basic change. Stieglitz thought the Armory 
Show might have completed the work he had pursued 
at "291," and since 1913 he had talked about closing the 
gallery. His younger associates, especially de Zayas, disa- 
greed and persuaded him to support more experiments 
for another year. Their first venture was the publication 
of an elegant avantgarde magazine entitled 291 ; the 
second was the establishment of a commercial gallery, 
the Modern Gallery, whose standards of quality, pro- 
fessional integrity and service to modern art and artists 
were intended to complement the non-commercial, in- 
tellectual experiments at "291. " 31 This magazine and the 
Modern Gallery provide the first documents of a startling 
new style in Picabia's career, the machinist style. 

Because this style later became identified with Dada, 
many critics fell prey to a Dada complex. They assumed 
that Picabia's cryptically inscribed contraptions were 
intended only to mock and mystify, and they suspended 
critical analysis and attributed Dada dates (c. 1913-1922) 
and Dada content to every work resembling a machine. 
However, Picabia said he began these paintings suddenly 
during the summer of 1915, 32 and two key statements of 
that year preclude an exclusively Dadaist interpretation 
of this work. Indeed, these statements provide links to 
his previous painting, and distinguish his machinist style 
from that of other artists preoccupied with the machine. 
An associate at "291," Paul Haviland, stressed the physi- 
cal-functional analogies of men and machines: 

Man made the machine in his own image. She has limbs 
which act; lungs which breathe; a heart which beats; a ner- 
vous system through which runs electricity. The phono- 



30 Prior to the Armory Show, "291" led a solitary crusade for 
modern art and photography. Soon afterwards other patrons 
emerged and several new galleries (Charles Daniel in Decem- 
ber 1913; Bourgeois Gallery and Montross Galleries in Fe- 
bruary 1914) began to show American and European avant- 
garde work. The most extraordinary patrons were Walter 
and Louise Arensberg, who assembled a collection of modern 
and primitive art (now housed in the Philadelphia Museum 
of Art) and generated an informal salon that attracted the 
foremost writers and artists in New York. 

31 Stieglitz's notions about terminating "291" appear in letters 
to Mme. Picabia on January 15 and December 30, 1914, and 
in a letter from John Weichsel to Stieglitz on July 31, 1917 
(Alfred Stieglitz Archives, YCAL). 

The magazine 2gi (no. 1, March 1915-110.12, February 1916) 
in which Stieglitz played an active role, was probably in- 
spired by de Zayas' contact with the Futurists and with Apolli- 
naire's colleagues at the Soirees de Paris while living with Pi- 
cabia during the summer of 1914. Plans for the Modern Gal- 
lery are discussed in the Stieglitz-de Zayas correspondence of 
August-September 19 15 in the Alfred Stieglitz Archives 
(YCAL) and in the collection ofMarius de Zayas, the latter 



graph is the image of his voice; the camera the image of his 
eye. The machine is his "daughter born without a mother." 3 ' 

Picabia stressed the psychological and esthetic (or plas- 
tic) possibilities of machines: 

The machine has become more than a mere adjunct of life. It 
is really a part of human life ... perhaps the very soul. In 
seeking forms through which to interpret ideas or by which 
to expose human characteristics I have come at length upon 
the form which appears most brilliantly plastic and fraught 
with symbolism. I have enlisted the machinery of the modem 
world, and introduced it into my studio. 
...I mean ... to work on and on until I attain the pinnacle 
of mechanical symbolism.' 4 

There was no styhstic transition from the psychologi- 
cal studies of 1913-14 to the machines of 1915, but such 
statements and the paintings themselves underscore con- 
tinuities of aim and content. Instead of developing a 
vocabulary of abstract forms and colors, Picabia sought 
machine equivalents or symbols to comment on man, his 
deeds, concepts and experiences much as the ancient 
Greeks and Romans developed personifications of gods, 
war, peace, virtues and vices. This persistent concern for 
man accounts in large part for the fantastic appearance 
of most of his machines. They were not meant to repre- 
sent ordinary machines or to function like them; their 
contacts are psychological, not mechanical; they com- 
ment primarily on man and human situations, and only 
indirectly on machines, science and technology. 

One of the first drawings associated with Picabia's 
machinist style, The Girl Born without a Mother (no. 41), 
refers to the machine as a "creature" made by man for his 
service - much as God had created Eve, not from woman 

graciously made available to this author by the widow and 
son of de Zayas. The Modern Gallery was de Zayas' idea; 
Eugene Meyer largely financed it and the Picabias provided 
almost all of the initial stock. Though Stieglitz finally ap- 
proved the gallery, he had little interest in it (letter from 
Stieglitz to John Bullock, March 26, 1917, Alfred Stieglitz 
Archives, YCAL). In 1916, he and de Zayas split temporarily 
over issues raised by the gallery, though neither Picabia nor de 
Zayas ever relinquished their enormous esteem of Stieglitz. 

32 The New York Tribune, op cit.. 

33 Paul B. Haviland, statement in 291, New York, nos.7-8, 
September-October 191 5. 

34 The New York Tribune, op. cit. Given Picabia's association of 
mechanical forms with human forms and conditions, Michel 
Sanouillet's term "mechanomorphic" (Picabia, L'Oeil du 
Temps, 1964, p.28) properly describes most of the paintings 
of this period. However, since some works are not "mecha- 
nomorphic" in form or in content, this author has (without 
affection) adopted a more general, inclusive term "machinist" 
tor the variety of machine-related paintings and drawings en- 
countered from 1915 - c.1922. 



Marius dcZ.1y.1s 

Woman 1 . (Femme!). 1915. 

Psychotype poem reproduced 291, New York, no. y, 

November 1915. 



Fig. 6 Francis Picabia: 

Here She Is (Voifcelle). 1915. 

Ink, dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. Reproduced 291, New York, no. 9, 

November 191 5. 



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but from man and for man's use and companionship. 
The artist was therefore - as Picabia frequently suggest- 
ed - a god-like figure. But, as God created without the 
aid of a mother, one eventually encounters concepts 
of the "unique eunuch" (no. 69), the "merry widow" 
(no. 71) and the products of their offspring. The com- 
plex personal and social relationships of Picabia's ma- 
chines are rich in content. In some instances that con- 
tent is universal in scope and open to thoughtful observ- 
ers; more often, not even close friends and members of 
the family violated the privacy of those paintings. 

This is true of Picabia's earliest machinist drawings, 
most of them symbolic portraits based on slightly modi- 
fied diagrams and advertisements of actual machines. 
The camera representing Stieglitz in a summer issue of 
2Qi (no. 42) seems a simple, appropriate symbol for a 
great photographer, but accompanying inscriptions and 
the fact that the camera is broken are confusing. The key 
to these features lies outside the drawing in an adjacent 
text by de Zayas to the effect that Stieglitz, despite his 
great talent, "faith and love," had failed to realize his 
"ideal" of discovering America and helping Americans 
to discover themselves through art and photography.' 5 



No hostile criticism was intended by de Zayas; he mere- 
ly contended that Stieglitz's approach to his ideal was too 
lofty for Americans (hence the topmost position and 
Germanic script of "Ideal" in Picabia's drawing), and 
needed to be complemented by the only thing most 
Americans could understand about art - a commercially 
successful gallery. 

In addition to appropriating machines and manufac- 
tured objects like the camera, Picabia began to combine 
machines and to invent complex, fanciful contraptions. 
During 191 5 most of them were characterized by bold 
symmetrical compositions, precise forms, striking but 
subdued color harmonies and prominent inscriptions 
whose cryptic, provocative nature undermines the clarity 
of the design (nos. 44-46). One of the more accessible 
composite machines was Voila elle (Here She Is), exhibited 
alongside de Zayas' psychotype poem Woman (fig. 6). 
One critic reported that "according to the artists' sworn 
word these works were portraits of the same woman 
made at different times and in different places 'without 
collusion."' 36 De Zayas' poem denounces the woman 
as an unintelligent creature wholly consumed by carnal 
desires - an opinion echoed in Picabia's drawing of a 



35 M. dc Zayas, statement in 291, New York, nos. 5-6, July- Au- 
gust 1915- 



36 Unsigned review, Art and Decoration, New York, November 
1915. P-35- 



pistol and a target with connecting mechanical linkage. 
The pistol and target, forms repeatedly employed by 
Picabia as male and female sexual symbols (see no. 80), 
are aligned with the clear implication that a target hit 
would cause the pistol to be re-cocked and discharged 
again in a repetitive, mechanical action. Voila elle there- 
by becomes an automatic love machine akin in theme 
and spirit to Duchamp's The Bride Stripped Bare by Her 
Bachelors, Even (or The Large Glass, 1915-23). However, 
in contrast to The Large Glass, Picabia's love machine 
appears to be in good working order, and his machine 
images in general tend to be simpler in form and content, 
less marked by painstaking craftsmanship and more per- 
sonal in reference than the cool, metaphysical creations 
of Duchamp. 

The content of Reverence (no. 45) is perhaps more enig- 
matic, though Picabia seems to have simultaneously 
celebrated the sacred formal properties of classic art and 
subverted them into an anti-classic system. On one level, 
order, balance, clarity and stability prevail in "pure" 
square and circular forms and their glittering gold and 
silver metallic paint. But an initial impression of compo- 
sitional balance and stability is undermined by the off- 
center alignment of the diagonal shaft, the displacement 
of the smaller circles along this shaft, and the interior 
modeling of the two trapezoids which create thoroughly 
ambiguous illusions of space, light, weight and shape. As 
Picabia wrote along the bottom of the large circle, this 
painting is an object "that does not praise times past," but 
merits "reverence" for placing the cherished values of 
classicizing, academic art at the service of a new, anti- 
rational system. 

This phase of Picabia's machinist period ended in the 
fall of 1915 when Mme. Picabia went to New York and 
persuaded her husband to resume his military mission. 
Their travels for about ten months are scantily document- 
ed, but around August 1916 they settled briefly in Bar- 
celona where life was made more pleasant by a band of 
French friends, among them Albert and Juliette Gleizes, 
Marie Laurencin and her husband, Arthur Cravan and 
Maximilien Gautier. During this year Picabia began to 
write poetry, and into the early 1920s working as a poet, 
polemicist, journalist and editor occupied at least as much 
of his time as painting. In January 191 7 he began publi- 
cation of jpj, a journal inspired by and named after 2gi, 
though - typical of Picabia - less elegant in design and 
much more personal and provocative in content. 37 In- 



Fig. 7 Francis Picabia: 

Mechanical Ballet. 1917. 

Drawing, dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. Cover for jpj, New York, no. 7, 

August 1917. 





See Michel Sanouillet, ibid., vols. I and II, Paris, i960 and 
1966, for a reprint of this important journal and a detailed 
commentary on each issue. Picabia acknowledged his debt 
to Stieglitz's 2gi in a letter on January 22, 1917 (Alfred Stieg- 
litz Archives, YCAL). 



Francis Picabia: 

Ass (Ane). 1917. 

Drawing, dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. Cover for jgi, New York, 110.5, 

June 1917. 



Fig. 9 Francis Picabia: 

The Marquesas Islands, c.1916-17. 
Ink, 8 5 /» x 10 '/:" (22 x 26.7 cm.). 
Collection Paride Accetti, Milan. 




deed, each issue is an intriguing record of his current 
friends and foes, and a partial guide to the course of his 
poetry and painting. 

There are several distinct varieties of machinist pain- 
tings dating from 191 6 to 19 19. In contrast to those of 
191 $, almost all of them are asymmetrical in composition. 
Many are also more droll and gangling in form (nos. 54- 
56), while others retain the hard, clean machine esthetics 
of the earlier paintings (no. 63), and still others are ren- 
dered in a sketchy, painterly style (nos. 51-53). Content 
is also quite varied, though sexual themes continue to 
dominate. Striking visual properties may override sexual 
implications in the "man" "woman" code of Machine 
Turn Quickly (no. 50), but Picabia was never content 
with merely the esthetic properties of machines. While 
Corbusier and Ozenfant extolled the beauty and economy 
of form in actual machines or machine-made objects, 
Picabia always produced hand-made machines with sub- 
versive dimensions - a straightforward visual analogy 
in Mechanical Ballet (fig. 7), and what is probably an un- 
printable bilingual play on the form, function and loca- 
tion of a ship's propeller in Ant (fig. 8). 

Picabia's "painterly" machines provide a visual con- 
trast to the preceding works. Study for Sweetheart (no. 51) 
lacks the mass-production personality, streamlines, pre- 
cision and efficiency that would endear her to Leger; she 
is instead a soft, beguiling, irresistibly helpless female 
gadget - a veritable sweetheart. More disturbing content 
is couched in Amorous Parade and Universal Prostitution 
(nos. 54 and 55). The brightly painted, preposterous 
machine in Amorous Parade may be a spoof on the noisy, 



thrashing spectacle of love, but the ambiguous nature of 
its forms and its inability to function need not be exclu- 
sively comical. Universal Prostitution conveys its message 
with brutal clarity. The forms of this bleak composition, 
its inscriptions and a related drawing (fig. 9) identify 
male and female machines in an act of love which has been 
stripped of all that is intimate, sacred or fulfilling. In Pica- 
bia's meta-mechanics, the dotted line to the center contact 
of the male machine indicates a heavenly source for his 
energy or activity. His drab partner is more independent, 
but equally impersonal - poised with her "sac de voyage" 
like a mechanical cricket ready to snap her connections 
in a moment and spring to the next unconnected male. 
During Picabia's third sojourn in New York, from 
about March to October 1917, these caustic, disturbing 
qualities became increasingly pronounced in his work. 
They reflect a bizarre life marked by excesses in alcohol, 
drugs and sex, by madcap parties and feverish work be- 
tween spells of neurasthenia and profound depression. 
In September an exhausted Madame Picabia returned to 
their children at a boarding school in Switzerland. Pica- 
bia soon followed her to Europe, but had to go to Barce- 
lona because of unsettled military status. His first volume 
of poetry was published there before he was cleared in 
November to return to Paris.-' 8 



38 Cinquante deux miroirs, Barcelona, 1917. Picabia's friend and 
important avant-garde art dealer in Barcelona, Jose Dalmau, 
aided in the publication of this poetry as he had helped with 
J9>- 



Dismal war-time conditions in the capitol were re- 
lieved for Picabia by Germaine Everling, who became 
his devoted companion and common-law wife until the 
early 1930s. However, his unwillingness to part from 
either his wife or Madame Everling created a tumultu- 
ous life that aggravated his nervous disorders, and most 
of 191 8 was spent at various Swiss health resorts in an 
unsuccessful search for health and calm. "Unable to paint 
much of the year, he turned more intently to poetry and 
finished three new volumes, Poemes et dessins de la file nee 
saus mere, L' Athlete des pompcsfunebres, and Rateliers pla- 
toniques (Poems and Draiviugs of the Girl Born without a 
Mother, The Athlete of Funeral Parlors and Platonic False- 
teeth)." 

It was during this unsettled period that Tristan Tzara 
wrote Picabia, in August 1918, inviting him to collabo- 
rate with the Dada movement. 41 Immediate mutual de- 
light over each other's work led to the Picabias' memo- 
rable visit with the Zurich Dadaists during January- 
February 1919. The rejuvenating effect of that visit was 
promptly reflected in issues of Dada and 392, but there was 
relatively little that Picabia could do to alter the long- 
established character of Dada in Zurich. For the more 
profound effect of his visit one must look at the rapport 
between Tzara and Picabia that led to the opening of a 
Dada front in Paris. 

Picabia yearned to launch Dadaist activities as soon as he 
arrived in Paris in March, and, on the occasion of the 
1919 Salon d'Automne - with the quiet encouragement 
of Duchamp and the brilliant support of Ribemont-Des- 
saignes - he did so spectacularly. His entries to the Salon, 
like the superb Child Carburetor (no. 63), were samples of 
his established machinist style, but nothing like this had 
been exhibited in Paris, and officers of the first post-war 
Salon, eager to display the untrammeled standards of 
French art, were mortified. Unable to refuse the work of 



an associate of the Salon, they hung his paintings in a dark 
alcove under the grand stairway. Picabia and Ribemont- 
Dessaignes retaliated quickly with two vitriolic issues of 
391 that prompted a demand for Ribemont-Dessaignes' 
resignation from the Salon and a challenge to a duel by 
Louis Vauxcelles. 42 This Salon episode became a variable 
model for Picabia's regular and almost single-handed 
assaults on the increasingly conservative Salon d'Autom- 
ne and Salon des Independants. It was also the first "orga- 
nized" Dada activity in Paris, though the use of the word 
"Dada" and the creation of a veritable Dada movement 
awaited Tzara's administrative genius. 

Throughout 1919, Picabia had strived futilely to at- 
tract Tzara to Paris, and Tzara, in turn, had sought un- 
successfully to unite Picabia and Breton. Someone had 
warned Breton to avoid Picabia, and the latter found 
Breton's journal Litterature far too serious for his taste. 43 
Breton was indeed serious. He had already undertaken a 
consuming quest for the secret core of art and life - a 
quest richly nourished awhile by Dada but never identi- 
fied with it. Nonetheless, the mutual suspicions of Bre- 
ton and Picabia were largely dispelled by an exciting 
meeting on January 4, 1920, shortly before the arrival of 
Tzara who fused the fragmented Dada elements of Paris 
into a volatile movement. 44 

The movement would not survive long, but for the 
time being Parisians were variously enraged, alarmed and 
delighted by the spectacle of Dada. The apartment of 
Picabia and Germaine Everling served as Dada's work- 
shop, and Picabia's role was considerable. His issues of 
jgi and a new magazine, Catmibale, were outstanding 
examples of Dada journals, and to the wave of Dadaist 
poetry he contributed three more volumes: Pensees sans 
langage, Unique Eunuque and Jesus Christ Rastaquouerc 
(Thoughts without Language, Unique Eunuch and Jesus Christ 
Showy Adventurer). For the public festivals of Dada, such 



39 See Germaine Everling-Picabia, "C'etait hier Dada ," 

(Les Ociwres Litres, Paris, no. 109, June 1955, pp.119-178), 
for information on these years in Picabia's life. She will soon 
publish a more extensive account entitled h 'Anne an de Sa- 
turne autour de Picabia. Picabia began to live with Mme. Ever- 
ling in the fall of 1919, shortly before the birth of his son by 
her. In 193 1 his divorce from Gabrielle became official. 

40 Like all of his poetry, these volumes reveal a subtle affinity 
with Picabia's paintings. Excepting occasional love poems of 
great delicacy, they are imbued with profound melancholy 
and veiled but haunting reflections of philosophical and 
psychological reactions to episodes in Picabia's private life, 
or to conditions in the world about him. Though he is patent- 
ly more concerned with content than with form, ultimately 
a formal pattern emerges. Ambiguous words and shocking, 
mysterious thoughts are closely paralleled by formal ambi- 
guities: ambiguities of punctuation and division into slashing, 
irregular lines, bewildering sequences of ideas and inconsis- 
tent rhyme, rhythm and alliteration. 



41 For this letter and the Tzara-Picabia correspondence see 
Michel Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, Paris, 1965, pp. 466-502. 

42 See 391, no. 9, November 1919; 391, no. 10, December 1919, 
and Michel Sanouillet, Francis Picabia et 391, vol.11, p. 107. 

43 See the Tzara-Picabia-Breton correspondence in Sanouillet, 
Dada a Paris, especially pp.112-13, 446, 451-53, and 490. 

44 Duchamp's role is difficult to evaluate. He lived in Paris (at 
least part of the time with Picabia) from July 1919 to Febru- 
ary 1920, just as Dada was getting underway there. However, 
he did not participate in any of the public activities of the 
Dadaists, and few documents are known which clarify his 
private role. When measured against the documented con- 
tributions of Tzara, Breton and Picabia, it does not seem that 
Duchamp added significantly to the development of Dada 
in Paris - though several of Picabia's works suggest the con- 
tinued stimulation provided him by Duchamp. 



Francis Picabia: 

The Blessed Virgin. 1920. 

Ink, dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. Reproduced jgi, Paris, 110.12 

March 1920. 




as the climactic Picabia "Manifestation Dada" held on 
March 27, 1920, was a jack-of-all-trades. Before the per- 
formance, the audience perused a Picabia-designed pro- 
gram and an issue of jgi packed with confounding poetry, 
salty aphorisms, Duchamp's L.H.O.O.Q. and Picabia's 
Blessed Virgin (fig. 10) as well as vicious attacks on the re- 
vived Section d'Or Cubists. He was also responsible for 
the stage decor, consisting of a suspended bicycle wheel, 
cords stretched across the stage in front of the perform- 
ers, and large framed signs bearing such inscriptions as 
"If you stretch out your arms your friends will cut them 
off." Finally, Picabia contributed an insulting manifesto 
and an assemblage with a toy monkey entitled Portrait 
of Cezanne, Portrait of Renoir, Portrait of Rembrandt, Still 
Life (fig. 12), 45 to an uproarious performance that in- 
cluded Ribemont-Dessaignes' music, "The Dance of 
Curled Chicory" and Tzara's play, "The First Celestial 
Adventure of Mr. Antipyrin," complete with Picabia's 
costumes. 

This assemblage and such works as Double World and 
The Blessed Virgin (figs. 10 and 1 1) introduce the distinctly 
Dada art of Picabia. Because he and his colleagues, Ribe- 
mont-Dessaignes, Jean Crotti and Suzanne Duchamp, 
primarily exhibited machinist paintings, critics tended to 
identify Picabia's machines with Dada - and, indeed, they 
were Dadaist to the extent that they reflected his convic- 
tion about the pre-eminence of life over art, and often 
treated in harsh or humorous ways anything that hindered 
an unfettered life. However, they were little different 
from machinist paintings prior to his association with 
Dada, and they gave way during 1919-21 to some original 
assemblages, to the stunning irreverence of The Blessed 
Virgin and to the deliberate technical crudity and icono- 

clasm of Portrait of Cezanne and Double World. The 

latter (exhibited at the first Dada performance and at the 
1920 Salon des Independants) is a balance of biting in- 
scriptions and an abstract interlace whose convoluted 
loopings seem compatible with the world it describes - 
top ("haut") at the bottom, bottom ("bas") upside down 
at the top, and full of maladies which God has never cur- 
ed. Plastered down the center of it are the letters "L H O 
O Q," an indecent arrangement devised by Duchamp 
or Picabia which reads in French "She has a hot arse" 
("Elle a chaud au cul"). 

Dada is not entirely definable, but close to its core 
was a protest-expose of the absurdities, pretensions and 
hypocrisies of man - his systems of religion, law and 



Michel Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, pp. 164-8. Picabia may have 
initially intended to use a real monkey for Portrait of Cezanne. . . 



Fig. ii Francis Picabia : 

The Double World (Le double monde). 1919. 
Ripolin on canvas, 52 x 33 '/z" (132 x 85 cm.] 
Private collection. 



Fig. 12 Francis Picabia: 

Portrait oJ'Cezanne, Portrait of Rembrandt, Portrait of Renoir, 
Still Lifcs. 1920. 

Toy monkey and oil on cardboard, dimensions unknown. 
Collection unknown. Reproduced Cannibale, Paris, no.i, 
April 25, 1920. 



_LE DOUBLE MONDE- 





Fig. i? Francis Picabia: 

Hoi Eyes (Les yeux chands). 1921. 
Ripolin on canvas, 78 x 62 '/:" (19S x 158 cm.)? 
Collection possibly M. H. Saint-Maurice, Paris. Undc 
neath Fig Leaf (La feuille de vignc), 1923. 



Fig. 14 Francis Picabia and anonymous engineer: 

Hoi Eyes and schematic drawing ot a governor. 
Reproduced in Lc Matin, Paris, November 10, 
1921, p.l. 





morality, his inflated notions of art, love and logic. By 
exorcising the demons within these, the Dadaists sought 
to free themselves; and in the hands of the most profound 
Dadaists this led to a healthy ridicule of themselves and 
their art. Try as they might, most Dadaists thought too 
highly of their work to take such a step. Duchamp and 
Picabia were among the very few with nerve enough to 
win that greater measure of freedom, each in his own 
way. Duchamp steered clear of false gods with uncanny 
self-discipline and objectivity; Picabia was an utter 
hedonist, less concerned about the falsity of those gods 
than their power to hinder his pleasure. Duchamp never 
joined an art movement, did not depend on art for a 
living and finally almost gave up art; Picabia loved to 
paint and embraced all kinds of art movements, but 
promptly departed at the first signs of boredom or con- 
straint. Such signs began to appear in Dada during the 
summer of 1920. 

Most critics of Dada saw it as an outrageous malaise of 
foreign origin, but serious observers early perceived two 
streams - one represented by Tzara and Picabia, and 
another headed by Breton and his friends, Eluard, Ara- 
gon and Soupault. 46 Tzara and Picabia had sensed from 
the beginning their colleague's clinical interest in Dada 
- a suspicion confirmed by Breton himself in an article 
that summer which intimated his concern for a goal 
beyond Dada." An accumulation of incidents led Picabia 
to break with Breton at the end of the summer. The 
schism was not healed until the beginning of 192 1, and 
even then Picabia's participation in planning for the new 
Dada season was nominal. In April, fire was put to his 
simmering suspicions and general disenchantment with 
the "success" of Dada. A waiter's pocketbook left at a 
table of Dadaists became the focus of a doctrinal dispute; 
a Dada tribunal was formed for a mock trial of a promi- 
nent literary figure, and a letter from a Swiss Dadaist, 
Christian Schad, proclaimed that not Tzara but the 
German Dadaist Dr. Serner had been the true initiator of 



both the word and movement of Dada. 48 On May 11 and 
13 Picabia announced his withdrawal from Dada in a 
bitter public statement: 

We (the Dadists) were treated as crazy men, as practical 
jokers, as queer fellows. . .finally it became a grand success! 
This success . . . attracted . . . persons who have only the name 
of Dada; . . . everything changed around me, I had the im- 
pression that, like Cubism, Dada would have disciples who 
"understood" and I had only one idea, to flee as far as possi- 
ble.... 

Noiv Dada has a court, lawyers, soon probably gendarmes . . . 
I do not like illustriousuess and the directors of Litterature 
are nothing but illustrious men. I prefer to walk at random, 
the name of the streets matters little, each day resembles the 
other if we do not create subjectively the illusion of some- 
thing new and Dada is no longer new —*' 

Appropriately enough this defection of a principal 
Dadaist spurred the Dada activities of both Picabia and 
those he denounced - and the protagonists were worthy 
of each other. Though the 1921 Dada season had been 
imaginative and successful, Picabia gave his ex-col- 
leagues a delicious thrashing in a special issue of jpj, 
Pilhaou-ThibaouJ" They responded in kind with Dada-au 
grand air, and Picabia struck back with his "je m'enfou- 
tisme" (I don't give a damn) technique in a handbill dis- 
tributed by the thousands at the 1921 Salon d'Automne. 51 

This Salon and the 1922 Salon des Independants were 
his most spectacular ones. Picabia's reputation was such 
that the description of one of his Salon d'Automne pain- 
tings as "explosive" was taken literally, and mounting 
concern forced the President of the Salon to post a notice 
in the press that Picabia's paintings had been inspected 
and were safe. 52 When a reporter discovered the machine 
source for one of the paintings, a mock homage to the 
Salon President (figs. 13 and 14), Picabia replied: 



46 Marcel Bouknger ("Herr Dada," attrib. to Nouvelles, Bor- 
deaux, May 3, 1920) sought to discredit Dada by associating it 
with Germany, Bolshevism and anything radical, foreign and 
un-French.Jacques Riviere ("Reconnaissance a Dada," La Nou- 
velle Revue Francaise, Paris, no. 83, August 1, 1920, pp. 216-37) 
discussed Dada in proto-Surrealist terms and perceived two 
streams in the movement (Tzara-Picabia and Breton-Aragon- 
Soupault) of which only the latter merited a place in French 
literature. Georges Charensol ("Manifestation Dada," Co- 
moedia, Paris, March 29, 1920, p. 2) saw Tzara and Picabia as 
the only real Dadaists, while the rest were merely young men 
amusing themselves. 

47 Andre Breton, "Pour Dada," La Nouvelle Revue Francaise, 
Paris, no. 83, August 1, 1920, pp. 208-15. 



48 For these events see Clement Pansaers, "Une Bombe decon- 
fiture," Pilhaoit-Thibaoit {391, no. 15), July 1921, p. 8 and Mi- 
chel Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, pp. 271-3, 566-8, 254-66. 

49 Francis Picabia, "Francis Picabia et Dada," signed May 13, 
published in L'Esprit Notweau, Paris, 110.9, June 1921, pp. 
1059-1060. See also Francis Picabia, "M. Picabia se separe des 
Dadas," Comoedia, Paris, May 11, 1921, p. 2. Picabia's friend- 
ship with the Director of Comoedia, Georges Casella, gave 
him ready access to its pages, and for about one year he con- 
tributed monthly articles to it. 

50 Lc Pilhaou-Thibaou (391, 110.15), Paris, July 10, 1921. 

51 Dada an grand air, Tarrenz B. Amst, September 16, 1921, was 
assembled by Hans Arp, Max Ernst and Tzara while vaca- 
tioning in the Tyrolean Alps. 

52 L'Intransigant, Paris, October 13, 1921, p. 2. 









IDYLATE 











' 4 FRAHCI5 f ICJMUA V»nk 



Fig. 15 Francis Picabia : 

The Cacodylic Eye. 1921 . 

Ink, gouache and collage on canvas, 45 '/•• x 44 '/»" 

(115 x 114 cm.). 

Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris. 



/ congratulate the newspaper Le Matin not only for discover- 
ing the secrets but for comprehending them." 
To copy apples, that is comprehensible for everyone , to copy 
a turbine, that is idiotic.* 1 



The other painting, The Cacodylic Eye (fig. 15), was done 
in collaboration with about fifty friends (and a few ene- 
mies) as they dropped by the apartment. These friends 
- among them Duchamp, Darius Milhaud, Cocteau, 
Isadora Duncan, Paul Poiret, Tzara and the Fratellini - 
were invited to do to the canvas what they wished, and 
they covered it with a scattering of collage elements, 
signatures, doodles, puns, aphorisms and homages. While 
critics enjoyed a field day with what one called the 
"interior of a pissotiere," Picabia published one of his most 
revealing dadaist statements: 

The painter makes a choice, then imitates his choice so that 
the deformation constitutes the art; the choice, why not 
simply sign it, in place of making like a monkey before it? 
. . . This canvas was finished when there was no longer space 
011 it and I find this painting very beautiful ... it is perhaps 
that all of my friends are artists just a bit !5 

Further along in this article Picabia made still more 
clear the purpose of his art, namely its responsiveness to 
life: 

Me, I would like to found a "paternal" school to discourage 
young people from that which our good snobs call Art with 
a capital. Art is everywhere, except with the dealers of Art, 
in the temples of Art, like God is everywhere, except in the 

churches Look, boredom is the worst oj maladies and my 

great despair would be precisely to be taken seriously, to 
become a great man, a master 

He had no worries on those counts as far as Paul 
Signac, President of the Salon des Independants, was con- 
cerned at the 1922 Salon. Picabia submitted three works, 
Dance of Saint-Guy, The Merry Widow and Straw Hat? 
(nos. 68 and 71 ; fig. 16). Although the Salon des Indepen- 
dants was not supposed to reject work sent for exhibi- 
tion, Signac wrote Picabia that the last two pieces would 
not be accepted because they did not fit categories of 
work admitted to the Salon 56 and - as he later told re- 
porters: 



Fig. 16 Francis Picabia: 

Straw Hat? (Chapeau de Paille?). c. 1921. 
Oil, cord and paper on canvas, 36 '/ 4 x 28 3 / 4 
(92 x73 cm.). 
Collection Dr. Lemasle, Paris. 



CHATEAU 




<?' 



FRANCIS PlCOU-ic*. 



Francis Picabia, open letter in Le Matin, Paris, November 10, 
1921, p.i. 

Francis Picabia, "L'Oeil Cacodylate," Comoedia, Paris, No- 
vember 23, 1921, p. 2. 

Les Yeux chattels may have been painted over with a figura- 
tive composition Fig Leaf (La. feuille de vigne, Saint-Maurice 
collection, Paris), exhibited at the 1922 Salon d'Automne. 



Picabia, Marthe Chenal and Igor Stravinsky also planned for 
the 1921-1922 season a musical entitled Les Yeux chattels, but 
it was not produced. 

55 Francis Picabia, ibid. 

56 Paul Signac, letter to Francis Picabia, January 17, 1922, in 
Dossier Picabia VIII, p. no, Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques 
Doucet, Paris. 



We do not want the government to refuse us the Grand 
Palais next year. Already, last year M. Picabia caused us an 
interpellation at the Chamber [of Deputies]. We do not care 
to repeat the experience . . . we are hardly disposed to tolerate 
excesses which can only discredit or dishonor our Salon.- 7 

Picabia immediately sent a letter of protest to the Pari- 
sian newspapers, but Signac stood firm despite continued 
public denouncements by Picabia and a caustic handbill 
distributed at the door of the Salon. A few critics de- 
fended Picabia's right to show the works, but most were 
either delighted to see him excluded or else preoccupied 
with the inscriptions on Straw Hat? Though Picabia claim- 
ed that "M pour celui qui le regarde" should be read 

"Merci pour . . . ," one critic suggested that it was meant 
to be read "Merdc pour . . ." and soon this rumor became 
accepted as a fact. !s 

At the height of such Dada activities Picabia became 
involved in Breton's Congress of Paris - hardly a Dada 
venture as indicated by the full title, "International Con- 
gress for the Determination of Directions and the Defense 
of the Modern Spirit." 5Q Breton was still seeking that 
goal or direction beyond Dada, and Picabia promptly 
attacked the Congress. While Breton seemed preten- 
tious in his search for what lay beyond Dada, Tzara was 
seeking to continue Dada. That was worse, and when his 
greater enemy, Tzara, became a foe of the Congress, 
Picabia (assiduously courted by Breton) became a sarcas- 
tic supporter of it. Bitter fighting between the Tzara and 
the Breton-Picabia camps killed the Congress and multi- 
plied an already confused mosaic of enmities and allian- 
ces. The Congress did, however, generate some impor- 
tant articles on Dada, the brilliant polemical pamphlets 
of Picabia and Tzara, and the renewed friendship of Bre- 
ton and Picabia until they clashed over Surrealism in 
1924.* Their plans to found a liberal salon and newspa- 
per never materialized, but Picabia did collaborate with 
Breton in the latter's journal, Litterature. Breton, in turn, 
introduced Picabia to an important patron, Jacques Dou- 



57 R. Cogniat, Interview with Paul Signac, Comoedia, Paris, 
January 21, 1922, p. 2. 

58 A. Gybal, "Lc 'true' de M. Picabia," Journal du Peuple, Paris, 
January 21, 1922, p. 2, and G. Maillot-Duparc, "Le bon 

True ," Tribune, Paris, January 31, 1922. (attrib. D. P. VIII, 

P-U3)- 

59 See Michel Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, chapter XX and the Dos- 
sier du "Congrcs de Paris," Bibliothcque Nationale, Paris. 

60 These articles and pamphlets include Picabia's La Poiiuuc de 
pins, St. Raphael, February 25, 1922; Tzara's Le coeur a Barbe, 
Paris, April 1922, and Breton's "Lachez-tout," Litterature, 
Paris, no. 2, April 1922, pp. 8-10. 

61 Galeries Dalmau, Exposition Francis Picabia, Barcelona, No- 
vember 18-December 8, 1922. 



cet, and interested him temporarily in seances of hypno- 
tism - another non-Dada attempt to probe the inner core 
of life and art. Breton also provided a lecture and cata- 
logue preface for Picabia's important exhibition at the 
Dalmau Gallery in Barcelona late in 1922. 61 

The paintings in this exhibition revive the machinist 
style, but in a distinctive form with new subjects and 
with occasional indications of a major turn in Picabia's 
career. In contrast to previous machinist paintings, these 
are characterized by somewhat simpler compositions, 
fewer inscriptions, and more severe machine esthetics 

- though not all of the paintings deal with machines. 
Many are based on astronomical charts, diagrams of wave 
patterns and electrical equipment, and still others, like 
Vohtcelle I (no. 73), appear to be non-objective composi- 
tions of simple geometrical forms. However, the curious 
title of Vohtcelle suggests the presence of something more 

- a suggestion that is supported by other contemporary 
paintings and the preoccupation of Picabia and several 
colleagues with the symbolic use of such simple forms as 
dots and lines. 62 

In Volucelle II (fig. 17), the large dots of Vohtcelle I 
have become colored circles on a striped field, and by 
placing nude torsos over a similar held in Conversation I 
(no. 76), there is an implied link between colored dots or 
circles and the human figure. Picabia's intentions remain 
mysterious, but in the headless, limbless figures entitled 
Conversation it is possible to note a taste for ironic con- 
trast which extends to the formal properties of the pain- 
ting - optical tensions between two and three-dimen- 
sional space and contrasts of forms that arc organic and 
abstract, soft and hard, static and moving, positive and 
negative. Duchamp has verified Picabia's concern with 
optical illusion in another of these field and figure pain- 
tings of c. 1922, Optophone (no. 77)," but neither optics 
nor machine esthetics is as distinctive as his taste for human- 
mechanical analogies - or in this instance, human-electri- 

62 In the fall of 192 1 Jean Crotti introduced "Tabu", an art move- 
ment characterized by geometrical abstractions with dots 
or circles and lines suggestive ot views of the cosmos, planets, 
orbits and the like. His writings and drawings (Jean Crotti, 
Courants d'Air sur le Chetnin de ma I 7c, Paris, 1941) suggest a 
vague symbolism especially involving circles, eyes, the human 
head, radio waves and other phenomena. 

Since 191 8 Duchamp had also worked with dots and cir- 
cles (parts of The Large Glass; To be looked at with one eye, close 
to, for almost an hour; Rotary Class Plate) with various sym- 
bolic and optical properties. He later said: "Reduce, reduce, 
reduce was my thought; ... I came to feel an artist might use 
anything - a dot, a line, the most conventional symbol - to 
say what he wanted to say." (Marcel Duchamp, statement in 
"Eleven Europeans in America," The Museum of Modem Art 
Bulletin, New York, vol. XIII, nos.4-5, 1946, p. 20.). 

63 Marcel Duchamp, notes for the Hotel Drouot sales catalogue, 
Tableaux Aquarelles, Dessins par Francis Picabia, Paris, March 
8, 1926, n.p. 



Fig. 17 Francis Picabia: 

Volucelle II. c. 1922-23. 

Ripolin on canvas, 78 x 98" (198.5 x 249 cm.). 

Collection M. and Mine. Jacques-Henri Levesque, New 

York. 




cal analogies. The circular patterns here resemble a dia- 
gram of a static magnetic field around a current-bearing 
conductor, and by placing a female nude with her point 
of sex at the center of the field, Picabia makes her a 
"charged body" or the "conductor of the charge." Inter- 
pretive possibilities are richer still in the contemporary 
Spanish Night (no. 80), which further develops the erotic 
suggestions of Optophone and the formal contrasts of 
Conversation. More important for Picabia's subsequent 
career, however, was the heralded return to figurative art. 

By 1923 machinist and abstract painting had almost 
disappeared from his work, while figurative art (which 
he had never totally abandoned) became his chief ex- 
pressive means for the following twenty years in a suc- 
cession of styles known as the "Monsters," the "Trans- 
parencies," "Superimpositions" and "Popular Realism." 
In taking this step, Picabia participated in a prominent 
trend of the 1920s toward conservative adaptation of 
modern art to more traditional forms. Nonetheless, he 
was never again considered to be in the mainstream of 
Western art, and suddenly his paintings seemed to have 
nothing whatever to do with the preceding Dada and 
machinist work. Contemporary conservative critics hailed 
this stylistic evolution as the prodigal's return and the 
ultimate discredit of Dada. Most subsequent critics have 
seen it as a disastrous, inexplicable lapse of judgment and 
quality, 1 " 1 noting that the loss of Picabia's major, avant- 
garde status coincided with physical retreats - first to 
suburban Tremblay-sur-Mauldre (mid-1922), and then 
in 1925 to his estate in Mougins overlooking Cannes. 
Both viewpoints rely heavily on superficial elements of 
style, neglecting other formal features and a dogged 
consistency of temperament and content. 

Picabia acknowledged that his paintings, "very much 
in rapport with my life, change according to the people 
I see, the lands that I traverse," 65 But beyond this, he saw 
no need to be modern: "To make love is not modern, but 
that is still what I like best." 66 Neither did he think it de- 
sirable to perpetuate and codify a movement like "the 
adepts of the little school of beaux-arts cubists founded 
by L'Esprit Nouveau" who "fancy that an epoch is great 
because it lasts a long time or because those who partic- 
ipate in it are numerous." 67 



64 One notable exceptionisLawrenceAlloway,"London Letter," 
Art International, Zurich, vol. Ill, 110.9, 1959. PP- 3 3- 2 4- 

65 Roger Vitrac, "Francis Picabia, eveque," Journal du Peuple, 
Paris, June 9, 1923, p. 3. 

66 Francis Picabia, 'Jesus dit a ces juifs," La Vie Moderne, Paris, 
February 25, 1923, p.i. 

67 Francis Picabia, "La bonne peinture," L'Ere Nouvelle, Au- 
gust 20, 1922, pp. 1-2. 



Instead Picabia proposed: 

a man who would not be influenced by anyone, who would 
not be preoccupied with modernism or cubism or dadaism; 
who will not be socialist or communist or the contrary: a 
man who will be himself simply ... a man, finally who 
would lead us toward the new world to discover: the world 
of lore which the mediocre have no desire to enter and 
which frightens the "intellectuals" for fear of ridicule."* 

Such statements do not indicate a radical change in 
Picabia. Certainly his old Dadaist disregard of approba- 
tion had not diminished. Nor had his conviction of the 
primacy of life over art, as he demonstrated with utter 
delight in his 1924 ballet Reldche (fig. 18), and film Eutr' 
acte, created in collaboration with Erik Satie and Rene 
Clair for the Swedish Ballet. This "instantaneist" ballet 
was his antidote for Surrealism, which he misjudged as 
merely a warmed-over version of Breton's past grandiose, 
disaster-prone, laboratory-conceived projects. Though 
Picabia had been influential in the emergence of Surrea- 
lism, he spurned Breton's willingness to accommodate 
him to the movement 6 ', and heaped ridicule upon it in 
several articles and four final issues of 391. In response to 
an interviewer's question, "Is there a new movement 
[Surrealism] preparing itself?," Picabia answered: 

Inevitably! There is always a movement, but What 

I want to tell you is that it will always be beyond those who 
seek to fabricate it. Artificial eggs don't make chickens. 10 

...I hold to being and remaining outside of every chapel 

/ believe there is truly only one thing that can seduce us, it is 
the perpetual evolution of life: In order to have some- 
thing to say, one must begin by living " 



68 Francis Picabia, "Ondulations cerebralcs," L'Ere Nouvelle, 
Paris, July 12, 1922, pp. 1-2. 

69 See Breton's comment in Lc Siirrealisine et la peinture, New 
York, 1945, pp.48-9. While there was nothing Surrealist 
about Picabia's use of words on paintings, his unusual assem- 
blages, or his ink-splot Blessed I 'irgin, these were near-at-hand 
sources (among others) for automatism, "peinturc-poesie" 
and surrealist collages. Rene Magritte, who collaborated on 
the final issue of 391, may have drawn upon Picabia's sim- 
plified figural style of 1922-1924 as well as that of De Chirico. 

70 R. J., "Chez Francis Picabia," Paris-Journal, May 9, 1924, p. 5. 
See also 39J, nos. 16-19 ar >d Michel Sanouillet, Francis Picabia 
ct 391, vol.11, pp. 153-70. 

71 Francis Picabia, "Premiere heme," Le Mouvement Accelere, 
Paris, November 1924, p.i. 

72 Francis Picabia, statement in the program for Reldche. Reldche 
[Performance Suspended], scheduled for November 27, 1924, 
lived up to its title when the last-minute illness of the princi- 
pal male dancer delayed the opening to December 4. Soon 
the title was even more appropriate for, after a short run, 
Reldche and Rolf de Mare's Swedish Ballet closed permanent- 
ly. Entr'acte ("intermission") literally served as an intermission 



Shortly after publication of the first Manifesto of Sur- 
realism in November, Picabia presented Reldche as life: 

life as I love it; life without yesterday, the life oj today, noth- 
ing for yesterday, nothing for tomorrow Reldche prom- 
enades through life with a great burst of laughter; Erik 
Satie, Borlin, Rolfde Mare, Rene Clair, Prieur and I have 

created Reldche a little like God creates life Reldche is 

the bonheur oj instants without reflections . . . Reldche advi- 
ses you to be livers 72 

A similar spirit also marks some of his art after the 
Dada epoch; indeed as late as 1927 he was producing 
assemblages so much in the spirit of Dada that they have 
long been attributed to the period of c. 1918-20. There 
is one signed and dated example of 1920 [Matchwoman I, 
Bergman collection, Chicago), but all other evidence 
indicates dates ranging from 1923-1927. The conventio- 
nal subject matter and painterly qualities of Reading (no. 
83) are more compatible with the "monster style" of the 
mid- 1 920s than with earlier Dada works - and in a Hotel 
Drouot sales catalogue of 1926 Duchamp grouped Read- 
ing with a section of "monsters" painted in Cannes dur- 
ing 1924-25. The same date is indicated for both Tooth- 
picks (no. 84) and Portrait (fig. 19) by their painterly qual- 
ities, their exhibition histories, their special frames by 
Pierre Legrain, and, above all, by contemporary corre- 
spondence. 75 Portrait is a particularly helpful work. In its 
revised form as The Bcautijul Pork Butcher (fig. 20), it 
bears witness to Picabia's constant and sometimes dumb- 
founding self-liberation from the past 74 . In its original 
form, Portrait is relevant to the dating of Centimeters (no. 
85), intellectually and sensuously the most engaging of 
these assemblages. Centimeters actually does not contain 
even a full centimeter; it is missing two fragments of a 100 
cm. tape - one of them the first eleven centimeters which 
appears as the nose in Portrait (and The Beautiful Pork 

between two acts of Reldche. Both film and ballet abound 
with slapstick comedy, reversal of the expected, irreverence 
for the sanctified, pointed insult of both audience and author 
and a celebration of uninhibited life. 

73 For documentation on Toothpicks, see the notes for Plumes 
and Toothpicks (nos. 82 and 84). The first known record of 
Portrait occurs in the correspondence of El Lissitzky (El 
Lissitzky and Mary Whittall, El Eissitzky, Greenwich, Con- 
necticut, 1968, p. 76). It is referred to as a portrait of Poincare 
which Lissitzky chose for exhibit in the room he designed at 
the International Art Exhibition in Dresden, 1926. It next 
appeared (with the title Portrait) at an exhibition of "recent" 
paintings by Pica bia at the Galcrie Van Leer, Paris, October 24- 
November 5, 1927, and was reproduced in its original 
form in Artwork, London, vol. Ill, no. 12, January-March 
1928, p.248. 

74 Portrait lost its Pierre Legrain frame and acquired a new face, 
hands, comb and title sometime after 1938 when it was last 
[again] reproduced in its original form (frame missing or 
cropped in the photograph; Buffet-Picabia, "Matieres Pla- 
stiques," XXe Sihle, Paris, vol. 1-2, 110.2, May 1938, p. 34). 



36 



Fig. 18 Swedish Ballet, Francis Picabia and Erik Satie: 
Relache (Performance Suspended). 1924. 



|t^^ 



K 





Fig. 19 Francis Picabia: 
Portrait, c.1925. 

Oil, combs, cord, tape, toothpicks, curtain rings and pens 
on canvas. Frame by Pierre Legrain. 
Collection E. S. Power, Esq., London, revised as 
The Beautiful Pork Butcher. 



Fig. 20 Francis Picabia : 

Tlie Beautiful Pork Butcher (Le beau charcutier). 

c.1925, revised c.1938-48. 

Oil, combs, cord, tape, toothpicks, curtain rings and pens 

on canvas, 36 l jt x 29" (92 x 73.6 cm.). 

Collection E. S. Power, Esq., London. 




Fig. 21 Francis Picabia: 

The Three Graces, c.1924-27. 

Oil on canvas, dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. 



Butcher). As interesting as these assemblages arc -in them- 
selves, in relation to assemblages by the Surrealists, 75 and 
as evidence of Picabia's persistent "Dada" temperament 
- they represent a secondary current in a phase domi- 
nated by the ubiquitous Spanish subjects and curiously 
deformed figures for which the period (c. 1923-28) has 
been named the "Monsters." 

The variety of the monsters precludes a simple de- 
scription, though all of them arc deliberately distorted in 
form, and are often of either popular or traditional sub- 
ject matter - young women with parasols, embracing 
couples, family groups, reclining nudes and the like. 
While delicate, restrained color harmonies are not in- 
frequent, the jolting colors and succulent ripolin paint of 
Woman with Monocle (no. 86) are more typical of the pe- 
riod. The enormous lozenge eye of this woman is also 
representative of the stylized features and shorthand mo- 
tifs that abound in most paintings, contemporary to it, 
such as Sibyl (no. 87) and, especially, The Three Graces 
(fig. 21). The sinuous curves, dots, zigzags and cross- 
hatching of the latter were partly derived from Picasso's 
still life paintings of c. 1922-26, but for his figures, 
Picabia drew from old masters, Michelangelo and Diirer 
in particular. 76 His intention in using Renaissance sour- 
ces is unknown, though on the surface it seems to reflect 
no reverence for either those sources or the return to 
more traditional values common in French art of the 
1920s. Following renewed visits to Barcelona, fragments 
of Catalan Romanesque frescoes also appear frequently 
in his work - sometimes brushed directly over earlier 
paintings of the monster period (no. 90; figs. 22 and 
23). 77 The superimposition of transparent images in these 
paintings and in some of the amorous couples (no. 89) 
leads directly into a second figurative period, the "Trans- 
parencies" of 1928 to about 1932. 

Significant changes in Picabia's personal affairs and 
patterns of living accompanied the development of the 
transparencies. Olga Mohler, a young Swiss hired to 

75 The Surrealists' interest in collage and assemblage during the 
late io2os-early 1930s sprang from various sources, including 
Picabia's work. His limited but continuous production in 
that media since 1919 was known by them, especially Joan 
Miro, an admirer of Picabia since 1917, whose esteem may be 
reflected in his Spanish Dancer collages of 1928. 

76 See notes for Sibyl (no. 87) regarding Michelangelo sources. 
Figures from Diirer arc used in La Femtne an chien (Private 
collection, London) and Le Globe (Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York). 

77 Picabia's use of Catalan Romanesque frescoes was first noted 
by Georges Isarlov (Picabia Peintre, Paris, 1929, p. 14). These 
frescoes contain symbols and highly stylized motifs for wa- 
ter, stars, clouds, and thclikc which may have been the source 
for similar motives in the work of both Picasso and Picabia. 
Astrological symbols - some of them identical with Roman- 
nesque motives - may have been still another source. 





Fig. 22 Francis Picabia: Fig. 23 Apocalyptic Lamb. 12th century. 

Barcelona. 1924 and c.1927? Fresco, San Clemente de Tahull, installed in the Museum 

Oil on cardboard, 41 x 29 1 jt" (94 x 75 cm.). of Catalan Art, Barcelona. 

Seattle Art Museum, Eugene Fuller Memorial Collection. 







,,-^p-. 




V99 


Ills 




V* 


'xHl 




^'"K^^Hr 


^LIjM^ 


-y\ 



Fig. 24 Francis Picabia: 
Atrata. c.1929. 

Oil on wood, dimensions unknown. 
Collection unknown; formerly Leonce Rosenberg. 
The face in the upper center of Atrata and the hands whose 
thumbs touch near the center of the painting are adapted 
from a Botticelli portrait (Fig. 25). Underneath these forms 
is a faint image of Atlas based on an antique statue in the 
Museo Nazionale, Naples (Fig. 26). 



Fig. 25 Botticelli: 

Portrait of a Man with a Medal, c. 1473-74. 
Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

Fig. 26 Nineteenth-century drawing after anonymous Roman 
Sculptor: 
Atlas. 
Museo Nazionale, Naples. 





Fig. 27 Francis Picabia: 

Heads and Landscape, c.1930. 

Oil on canvas, 23 5 / 8 x 31 7 / 8 " (60 x 81 cm.). 

Formerly collection Mme. Simone Collinet, Paris. 

Fig. 28 Piero dclla Francesca: 

Detail from The Queen ofSheba Worshiping the Wood of 

the Cross, c.1455. 

Fresco, S. Francesco, Arezzo. 



serve as governess for the children, gradually displaced 
Germaine Everting in Picabia's affection. 78 Ensuing com- 
plications in his private life did not harm his status as a 
personality in Cannes. Night clubs and the Casino counted 
on him to provide themes and decor for their galas, 
and Picabia's own exhibition openings became events in 
the social season. More frequent exhibitions in Paris also 
led to regular visits to the capital, and the ready sale of 
his work prompted a rash of new automobiles, yachts 
and pets. 75 

Picabia exhibited a few transparencies in the fall of 
1928, although the first major exhibitions occurred in 
1929 and led directly to a contract with the dealer most 
reviled by Picabia during the Dada epoch, Leonce Rosen- 
berg. The transparencies are complex paintings with 
multiple layers of faces, figures, hands, birds and foliage. 
The images are here transparent and there opaque, dis- 
parate in scale and orientation, charged with mysterious 
relationships or private symbolism and fraught with 
ambiguities of form and space similar to those in multi- 
ple film exposures. 80 Despite such complexities, most of 
the early transparencies are imbued with a serene mel- 
ancholy conveyed by cool color harmonies, ephemeral 
forms, fluid pigment and, above all, by ideal, classici- 
zing figures. Indeed, many of the paintings bear such 
titles as Apollo, Hera, Artemis and Medea, and Picabia 
drew heavily on visual sources from Classical art and 
Italian art of the Renaissance and Baroque epochs. Until 
1930, Botticelli was his primary Renaissance source 
(figs. 24 and 25); during 1930-31 Piero della Francesca 
became his favored model (figs. 27 and 28). Occasionally 
the images of a transparency bearing the name of a Greek 
god or goddess appear related to the myth of that god. 
More often Picabia transformed the myth to his own ends 
or did his own myth-making - and his choice of Classical 
and Renaissance models seems to have had no relevance 



Mme. Olga Picabia's book, Un Quart de Siecle avec Picabia 
(soon to be published), and a scrapbook in her possession are 
primary sources of information on Picabia's life and art after 
1925. 

Picabia preferred tiny pets - birds and chihuahuas -but adored 
powerful automobiles. By Olga Picabia's count, he owned 
over a hundred in his lifetime including everything from 
Fords and Peugeots to a Mercer, a Graham Paige and a Rolls 
Royce. Between 1929-1939 he also owned several yachts, the 
sleekest of which was "L'Horizon," a seventy-foot motor 
yacht. 

Gaston Ravel ("Exposition de Peinture," attrib. to La Cri- 
tique Cinimatographique, Paris, October 29, 1929) first noted 
the possible influence of films in Picabia's transparencies. 
Picabia's own film, Entr'acte, is one probable source, though 
many modern artists from the 1880s onward had been con- 
cerned in various ways with the basic ingredients of the trans- 
parencies - synthesis and simultaneity. 




Fig. 29 Francis Picabia: 

Portrait of Gertrude Stein. 1933. 
Oil on canvas, 45 5 /» x 2 3 '/■<" ( IJ 6 x 60. 4 cm.). 
Gertrude Stein Collection, Collection of American Litera- 
ture, Yale University Library. 



beyond the fact that their visual properties embodied the 
particular sentiment he wished to convey. 

The mysterious, hermetic properties of the transpar- 
encies caused some critics to view them as occult visions 
or dream images related to Surrealism. Picabia, however, 
steadfastly refused to have anything to do with the Sur- 
realist movement. 81 Moreover, his statements and delib- 
erate use of visual sources from the past disassociate his 
transparencies from Surrealist preoccupation with dreams, 
visions, hallucinations or pure psychic automatism. As 
usual, his paintings were intensely personal: 

. . . these transparencies with their corner of oubliettes permit 
me to express for myself the resemblance of my interior de- 
sires ...I want a painting where all my instincts may have a 
free course.' 2 

At no time in his career was Picabia more successful in 
painting for himself. Most of the paintings, mysterious 
enough in themselves, were further cloaked by invented 
titles like Lnsainia (no. 92), and since he explained nothing, 
once again even his closest friends seem not to have known 
his intentions. At times the mixture of absolute hermeti- 
cism and a compelling presence of private symbolism 
creates more frustration than fascination; in other works 
his heavy-handed borrowing from past art and disdain 
of technical finesse detract from the unity of the painting. 
But in the best transparencies Picabia achieved a miracu- 
lous fusion of suggestive symbolism, impenetrable mys- 
tery and poignant visual experiences. 

During the course of the early 1930s, the transparen- 
cies became darker in tonality, with fewer figures that 
tended to be more opaque, more stylized and often rath- 
er awkwardly drawn. By 1933 these late transparencies 
were being supplanted by simplified, naturalistic images. 
Gertrude Stein, a close friend during the 1930's, docu- 
mented the continuity of some of Picabia's theoretical 
baggage, which was as heavy as the solid, earthen-hued 
image in her portrait (fig. 29): 

Picabia has conceived and is struggling with the problem 
that a line should hare the vibration of a musical sound and 
that this vibration should be the result of conceiving the 
human form and human face in so tenuous a fashion that it 
would induce such vibration in the line forming it. It is his 
way of achieving the disembodied 83 



Picabia's aloofness was briefly relaxed in 1929 when he was 
visited by Paul Eluard and submitted four poems to one issue 
of La Revolution Surrialiste (no. 12, December 15, 1929, pp. 
4.8-9). 

Francis Picabia, preface to Galcric Leonce Rosenberg, Expo- 
sition Francis Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 1930. 

Gertrude Stein, Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, New York, 
1933. p. 258. Miss Stein, Miss Toklas and the Picabias visited 
regularly in Cannes and Bchgnins from 1932 to 1939. 




Fig. 30 Superimposition young girl and madonna, c. 1935. 
Collection unknown. 



In this same year, on the brink of a slough in his career, 
Picabia was made a Knight of the Legion of Honor. 
He still remained a maverick, painting what he wanted or 
not painting at all if that was his wish, but for the remain- 
der of the decade the quality of his work was generally 
inferior and there was no dominant style or direction in 
it. Heavy-handed naturalism vied with superimpositions 
(fig. 30), with primitivizing scenes of fourteenth-century 
Italian inspiration and a revival of fauve-like landscapes 
sometimes mistaken for his work of 1909-n. 84 

Only the surprising abstract compositions (nos. 96 
and 97) in 1937 and 1939 suggest contact with more vital 
currents of the 1930s. 85 Picabia was aware of all the 
trends, for he and Olga dwelt in Paris a portion of each 
year, but he much preferred old friends, new automo- 
biles, little pets, night clubs and girlie shows to art galle- 
ries. Life on board his yacht in the harbors of Cannes and 
Golfe Juan was even more leisurely until the exigencies of 
World War II trimmed his style of living. After 1939 
fine autos and the yacht were replaced by bicycles and a 
small apartment, and, for the first time in his life, he and 
Olga (now his wife) relied to some extent on the sale of 
paintings. 

Throughout the war these paintings were characterized 
by what might be called "commercial" or "popular" 
realism, that is, a brand seemingly derived from rather 
vulgar pulp magazine illustrations, picture post cards, 
night club advertisements and the like (fig. 31). A per- 
sistent Dada syndrome in Picabia criticism lies behind 
the inclination of some critics to see this work as a pre- 
cursor of Pop Art or as a parody-protest of conventional 
realism. There is no evidence to support the latter view; 
Picabia was simply painting subjects that frankly reflect 
his interests in a realist style related to much of his work 
for a decade. And, according to Olga Picabia, he enjoyed 
painting them. His delight in these paintings and their 
direct influence on some artists associated with Pop Art 
make reference to that movement more relevant - 
though, here, too, Picabia's unself-conscious indulgence 
sets him apart. 80 

Picabia's long residence in the Midi ended under du- 
ress toward the end of the war. As usual, bitter-sweet 
complications existed in his private affairs, but his major 

84 Some of these fauve-like landscapes were exhibited at the 
Galerie de Beaune, Exposition Picabia, Paris, November 4-17, 
I93S. 

85 In 1937 Picabia joined Arp, Duchamp, Delaunay, Kandinsky 
and others in signing the Manifesto of Dimensionism publis- 
hed in Plastique, Paris, no. 2, summer 1937, pp.25-8. 

86 Bill Copley and Enrico Baj - both collectors of Picabia's 
work - have been interested in this as well as other periods 
in his career. Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns and Jim Dine 
have also expressed interest in Picabia's work, but there 
are few signs of his influence on hard core Pop artists. 



troubles issued from the life-long inability of an indul- 
gent individualist to comprehend war and nationalism. 
He repeatedly did and said things without realizing their 
potential offense to either the French or the Germans, and 
he offended them both. 

The depression of the final months in Cannes dissi- 
pated after Picabia's permanent return to Paris in 1945. He 
and Olga settled in an apartment-studio atop the old fam- 
ily home, and soon it was crowded with old and new 
friends who joined him on jaunts to his favorite night 
clubs and cinemas or on nostalgic weekend visits to the 
Impressionist galleries in thejeu de Paume. A completely 
new tenor of life - in victorious post-war Paris and in 
Picabia's own situation - was quickly expressed in his 
work, as poetry and abstract painting once again domi- 
nated his production. The quality of these late abstract 
paintings is uneven, but at their best they are comparable 
to his work at any time, and, like the work of artists bles- 
sed with a strong late style, they possess a spiritual dimen- 
sion wanting in some of the more popular periods. 

A young artist couple whom he had befriended in Can- 
nes, the Goetzes, 87 helped as much as anyone to rejuvenate 
Picabia by introducing him to young artists active at such 
new forums as the Salon des Surindependants and the 
Salon des Realites Nouvelles. Soulages, Atlan, Ubac and 
Camille Brycn among others began to visit Picabia, and 
he contributed to those newer salons. While in his new 
painting he participated in the wave of abstraction which 
swept Paris after the war, a sensitive spectator will not 
miss a familiar spirit in Picabia's painting, poetry and pub- 
lic statements. He commented to one critic in 1945: 

that which I wish to express is a precise interior state . . . 
. . . each painting is for me a drama, passing through all the 
stages of my preceding production ... in order to continue 
further and to touch at the end this fugitive hut ecstatic instant 
where I know that I hold tlte unseizable which is reality. 8S 

Again and again the late abstractions are imbued with 
mysterious reflections of earlier paintings. The Sun in 
Painting (no. 98) was either suggested by his abstract 
work of 1939 (no. 97) or actually composed of a 1939 
painting transformed by the super-imposition of a sun 



spot and a resonant film of color. The Dove of Peace (no. 
99) is an ominous, emotion-charged composition whose 
central forms are vaguely reminiscent of "monster" pain- 
tings from the late 1920s bearing images of the homed 
beast or the lamb of the apocalypse. She Dances (1948, 
Grandini collection, Milan) refers in form and title to 
abstract paintings of the 191 3-14 Udnie series, and Picabia 
exercised his "Dada" spirit with such titles as I Like Pretty 
Girls. Do You Want to Laugh and You'll Never Sell It. Bal 
Negre (no. 101) was a contemporary celebration of his 
favorite night club; Kaliuga (no. 100), a confrontation 
with the other pole of life. It is a disquieting, even repul- 
sive object; its surface is worked into a prickly texture 
with somber colors of an indescribable Iberian dryness 
which seems to evoke death itself. And like so many of 
Picabia's paintings, the ominous form dominating Kaliu- 
ga simultaneously defies and incites efforts to identify it. 
Though unidentifiable, it is not abstract; though intense- 
ly personal and mysteriously entitled, it is open to the 
sensual-spiritual response of any sensitive viewer. 

Exhibitions of his work, publication of his poetry, 
articles and interviews mounted to a climax in 1949. 8 " 
In that year masterpieces on the order of Udnie and Ld- 
taonisl began to make their way to great public collec- 
tions, and Rene Drouin, proprietor of one of the leading 
avant-garde galleries in Paris, gave Picabia a magnificent 
one-man show. 90 Shortly before this triumphant exhibi- 
tion, Picabia was devastated by the theft of jewelry which 
he counted on as a source of revenue in his old age. He 
was temporarily consoled by the efforts of loyal friends 
and by Michel Seuphor who encouraged a series of paint- 
ings based on dots. But essentially Picabia was never 
fully himself again. He was old, ill, relatively poor, and 
indisposed to follow any doctor's prescription that did 
not provide generously for cigarettes and whisky. A 
stroke in 195 1 terminated one of his last remaining life- 
long pleasures, painting - leaving him to cope with a 
life denied the activities which had made it meaningful. 
For Picabia, who had trusted as real only the needs and 
desires of the moment, and who had said "Death doesn't 
exist, there is only dissolution," these last two years, and 
finally death itself, were as grim as the brooding image 
of Kalinga. 



87 Picabia's unpublished letters and drawings to Henri Goctz 
and his wife, Christine Boumeester, provide insight to his 
moods and interests at this time (Collection M. et Mine. 
Goetz, Paris). 

88 Colline, "Un Entretien avec Francis Picabia," Journal des 
Arts, Zurich, 110.3, November 1945, p. 50. 

89 Around 194X-1950 Michel Tapie, Jean Cassou, Michel Seu- 
phor and Bernard Dorival published articles on Picabia. The 
most important of his own publications include Thalassa 
dans le desert (Paris, 1945), Henri Parisots' Choix de Poimes de 



Francis Picabia (Paris, 1947), and the numerous works printed 
by Pierre Andre Benoit beginning in 1949. Between 1946- 
1949 Picabia's paintings were chiefly handled by the Galerie 
Colette Allcndy and the Galerie des Deux-Iles. After 1950 
this role was assumed by the Rose Fried Gallery in New York 
and, particularly, by Madame Simone Collinet's galleries in 
Paris. Since i960 the Galleria Schwarz in Milan has gradually 
become the major dealer of Picabia's work. 

90 Galerie Rene Drouin, 49 1, 50 ans de plaisir, Paris, March 4-26, 
1949- 




Fig. 3i Francis Picabia: 

Woman and Bulldog, c.1941-42. 

Oil on canvas (?), dimensions unknown. 

Collection unknown. 



45 



FoilClS I lCclDlS The following catalogue entries are extensive but not 

complete. New titles, dates and interpretations are defended. 
The provenance of each item is as complete as present knowl- 
edge permits. Exhibition histories include all known early 
exhibitions and all subsequent exhibitions of consequence. 
Some minor exhibitions and the route of circulating exhibi- 
tions have been excluded. References under "Literature" are 
limited to those bearing significant information, not merely 
a passing reference or reproduction. Abbreviated names and 
titles arc employed for both the exhibitions and the literary 
references. Complete references for each entry may be found 
in the bibliography. Asterisks (*) indicate works shown 
only in the circulating exhibition; daggers (f) indicate 
works exhibited only at the Guggenheim Museum. 






46 




t i The Roofs of Paris. (Les Toits de Paris). 1900 

Oil on canvas, 11 x 16 '/s" (28 x 41 cm.) 

Signed and dated l.r. "Francis Picabia/1900" 

Private collection, Paris 

Provenance: 

Hotel Drouot, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

no. 1 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 3 




Spanish Lady. (Espagnole). 1902 

Watcrcolor, pencil and ink, 23 x 17" (58.5 x 43 cm.) 

Signed and dated "F. Picabia 1902" 

Collection Mrs. William Sawyer, Buffalo 

Provenance: 

Paul Bianchini Gallery, New York 

Exhibitions: 




* 3 Sunrise in the Mist, Montigny I. (Lever de 
Soleil dans la brume, Montigny). c.1905 

Oil on canvas, 28^/4 x 36 1 // (73 x 92 cm.) 

Signed 1.1. "Picabia 1905" 

Collection Rene Cavalero, Marseille 

Provenance: 

Galerie L. Blanc, Aix-en-Provence 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Haussmann, Picabia, Paris, February I— 15, 1907, 

no.46 

Hotel Drouot, Picabia Sale, Paris, March 8, 1909, 110.16 




t 4 Notre Dame. Effect of Sunlight. (Notre Dame. 
Effct dc Soleil). 1906 

Oil on canvas, 29'/ 8 x 36'/ 4" (74.O x 93.4 cm.) 

Signed and dated 1.1. "Picabia 1906" 

From the collection of the Honorable David Montagu, 
London 

Provenance: 

Unknown 

Exhibitions: 

Galcric Haussmann, Picabia, Paris, February 1-15, 1907, 

no. 19 

Hotel Drouot, Paris, May 31, 1926, no. no 




* 5 Pi ne Trees, Effect or Sunlight at Saint-Honorat. 
(Les Pins, effet de solcil a Saint-Honorat). 1906 

Oil on canvas, 86'/a x 118" (220 x 300 cm.) 
Private Collection, in care of Galerie Lorenceau, Paris 
Provenance: 

Galerie Lorenceau, Paris 
. M. and Mine. Daher, Paris 
Exhibitions: 

Societe des Artistes Francais, Salon de 1906, Paris, no. 1323 
Galerie Haussmann, Picabia, Paris, February 1-15, 1907, 
no. 67 




t 6 Chestnut Trees. (Les Chataigniers). 1907 

Oil on canvas, 26 3 / 4 x iS'/i" (68 x 90 cm., frame window) 

Signed and dated 1.1. "Picabia 1907" 

From the collection of the Honorable David Montagu, 
London 

Provenance: 
Unknown 
Exhibitions: 

The Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October- 
November, 1959, 110.8 



t 7 The Church at Montigny, Effect ot Sunlight. 

(L'Eglise de Montigny, effet de soleil). 1908 

Oil on canvas, 39 3 /s x 3 1 7 / s " (100 x 81 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; on reverse "L'Eglise de Montigny 
eifet de Soleil 1908 F. Picabia" 

Lent by Hilde Gerst Gallery, New York 

Provenance: 

Private Collection, France 

Exhibitions: 

Galerics Georges Petit, Picabia, Paris, March 17-31, 1909, 

110.13 

This painting at a turning point in Picabia's career synthe- 
sizes a lingering Impressionist quality of light with Neo- 
Impressionist (or Divisionist) brushwork and suggestions of 
Fauve color. 



View of Saint-Tropez from the Citadel. 
(Saint-Tropez vu de la Citadelle). 1909 

Oil on canvas, 28 3 /s x 35 3 /<" (7 2 x 9 1 cm., frame window) 

Signed and dated u.r. "Picabia 1909" 

Collection Luciennc Radisse, Paris 

Provenance: 

Hotel Drouot, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably Galeries Georges Petit, Picabia, Paris, March 17-31, 

1909 

Galerie de Paris, Les Amis de Saint-Tropez, Paris, May 2- 

June 10, 1961, no. 8 1 

This painting was probably exhibited at the Galeries Georges 
Petit in March 1909, but cannot be positively identified in 
the exhibition catalogue. Its brick-like brush strokes and 
Mediterranean site suggest the specific influence of Paul 
Signac, although personal touches are evident in a lingering 
quality of Impressionist light and in the relentless application 
of vertical and horizontal brush strokes. 




Fi«&fa4&ft&£ft 



Portrait ot Mistinguctt. 1907 

Oil on canvas, 24 x i9 5 /s" (61 x 49.8 cm.) 

Signed and dated I.e. "Francis Picabia 1907" 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New- 
York 

Provenance: 

M. Pierre Granville, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Gauguin and the 

Decorative Style, New York, June 23-October 23, 1966 

Guggenheim Museum, Seven Decades, New York, June 28- 

October 1, 1967 

Throughout Picabia's life, his circle of friends included 
prominent entertainers. Mistinguctt, early partner of Maurice 
Chevalier, was portrayed by him in this delicate, unexpected 
work whose simplified forms and flat, unmodelled color 
planes reflect the general influence of Fauvism, Symbolism 
and "Japonismc." 




: I0 Woman with Mimosas. (La Femme au 
Mimosa). 1908 

Oil 011 canvas, 45 5 /s x 35" (116 x 89 cm.) 

Signed and dated u.r. "Picabia 1908" 

Lent by Galleries Maurice Sternberg, Chicago 

Provenance: 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably Galcries Georges Petit, Picabia, Paris, March 17-31, 

1909, no. 22 

Grand Palais, Societe des Artistes Independants, Retrospective 

lgo^-iaog, Paris, March 22-April 15, 1968, 110.85 

This is Picabia's first full-fledged essay in the style of 
Fauvism, and in it he portrayed a woman who encouraged 
his embrace of more truly modern art - his future wife, 
Gabrielle Buffet. 




ii The Port of Saint-Tropez. 1909. 

Oil on canvas, 28 3 / 4 x 23 5 /s" (73 x 60 cm.) 

Signed and dated u.l. "Picabia 1909" 

Private collection, Paris 

Provenance: 

Palais Galliera, Paris 

M. Arniand Charles, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably Galeries Georges Petit, Picabia, Paris, March 17-31, 

1909 

Galerie dc Paris, Les Amis de Saint-Tropez, Paris, May 2-June 

10, 1961, no. 77 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 1 3 

Like I "tew of Saint-Tropez from the Citadel (no. 8), this painting 
was probably done during Picabia's honeymoon in Saint- 
Tropez and exhibited in March 1909 at the Galeries Georges 
Petit. 




12 Landscape. (Paysage). 1909 

Oil on canvas, 27^4 x 34 7 /s" (69 x 88.5 cm.) 

Signed and dated u.r. "Picabia 1909" 

Collection Alex Maguy, Galerie de l'Elysee, Paris 

Provenance: 

M. Simon Bilew, Rueil-Malmaison 

Mme. Simone Collinet, Paris 



13 Path. (L' Alice). 1909 

Pastel, y/s x 9'/:" (18 x 24 cm.) 

Signed and dated l.r. "Picabia 1909" 

Collection Andre Napier, Neuilly 

Provenance: 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December, 

1961, 110.7 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.9 

Hatton Gallery and Institute ot Contemporary Arts, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, 110.5 



1 14 Landscape at Cassis. (Paysage a Cassis), c. 1909 

Oil on canvas, i9'/8 x 2 A'I'" (S°-5 x OI -5 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "Picabia" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Neil Reisncr, Scarsdale 

Provenance: 

Restricted 

Despite the greater abstraction of this landscape (first 
reproduced in Guillaume Apollinaire's Les Peintres Cubistes, 
Paris, 1913), its muted, harmonious colors are descriptive and 
its highly simplified forms suggest a specific site. 

15 Abstract Landscape. (Paysage abstrait). 1909 

Crayon, 9^/4 X I2 3 /s" (24-7 X31.J cm.) 

Signed and dated 1.1. "Francis Picabia 1909" 

Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris 

Provenance: 

Galerie Furstenberg, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

University of Mexico, November 1962 







/ iCfVfr*t¥.~.y4t>4 




•c~ ~ 




59 



16 The Torrent. (Le Torrent), c.1909-1911 

Oil on canvas, 29 x 36 3 / 8 " (73.5 x 92.5 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "'Picabia'* 

Collection Simonc Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Hotel Drouot, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably Hotel Drouot, May 31, 1926, 110.97 

Museum Morsbroich Levcrkuscn, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.3 





17 The Dolls. (Les Poupees). c.1911 

Oil on canvas, 20 x 29" (51 x 72.5 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "F. Picabia" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Saltzman, Great Neck, New 
York 

Provenance: 
Sotheby's, London 

The joyous colors and nursery-room theme of this painting 
suggest a work done for the Picabias' children. Three 
children were born early in their marriage - Marie in 1910, 
Gabriel (Pancho) in 1911 and Cecile (Jeannine) in 1913. A 
fourth child, Vicente, was born to Gabrielle Buffet in 1919. 







[8 Regattas. (Les Regates). 1911 

Oil on canvas, 28 3 /s x 36 '/■»" (7- x 9 2 cm 

Signed and dated l.r. "Picabia 1911" 

Collection Jacques Tronchc, Paris 

Provenance: 

Henry Daher, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 1 5 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Art, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, 110.7 



19 Adam and Eve. 191 1 

Oil on canvas, 39 3 /s x 3 1 7 / s " (100 x 81 cm.) 

Signed and dated u.c. "Picabia 191 1" 

Collection Simone Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Galerie Berri, Paris 

M. Kleinman, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably La Societe Normande de Peinture Moderne, 

Rouen, May 191 1, no. 88 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 110.3 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, no.15 



Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

no. 1 1 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 16 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Art, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, 110.6 

Museum Morsbroich Levcrkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April2, 1967, no. 7 



The landscape background - though more schematic than 
the figures - seems to have been based 011 a site in Grimaldi, 
Italy, and was employed in other contemporary paintings by 
Picabia (110.20). 





20 The Red Tree. (L'Arbre rouge), c.1912 

Oil on canvas, 36'/4 x 28 3 / 4 " (92 x 73 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "Picabia" 

Collection Simone Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mine. Guillaume Apollinaire, Paris 

Guillaume Apollinaire, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Furstcnberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-December 

5, 1964, no.9 

Houston Museum of Fine Arts, The Heroic Years, October 

20-December 8, 1965, no. 75 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, no.9 



Early reproductions (Guillaume Apollinaire, Les Peintres 
Cubistes, Paris, 1913, and the Nebraska State Journal, Lincoln, 
February 9, 1913, B7) indicate there were several versions of 
this landscape, one of which was entitled Grimaldi After Rain. 
All are slightly different in style but based on the same site 
that appears as the background in Adam and Eve (no. 19). 
The moderately faceted forms and rich orange and brown 
colors of The Red Tree suggest a date between Picabia's 
Fauve canvases ot 191 1 and his cubist paintings of mid-1912 
(no. 22). 



64 




21 Landscape, La Creuse. (Paysage de la Creuse). 
c.1912 

Oil on canvas, 29 x 36'/2" (73-5 x 92.5 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "Picabia" 

Collection Mrs. Barnett Malbin, Birmingham, Michigan 
(The Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection) 

Provenance: 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Mme. Buffet-Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, no.7 

Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, no.i 

Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp and Picabia, New York, 

December 7, 1953-January S, 1954, no.i 

University of Michigan, Winston Collection, Ann Arbor, 

1955. no.50 

Detroit Institute of Art, The Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Harry 

Lewis Winston, September 27-November 3, 1957, no.80 



Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, Aires abstraites, Geneva, 1957, pp.26-27 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 44 

A date of 1908 has often been attributed to this landscape, 
but it could not have been painted before 1909 and it is far 
more compatible stylistically with Picabia's cubist canvases 
of mid-1912 (no.22). It appears in the company of other 
canvases of c.1911-12 in several studio photographs which 
are attributed to "1917" (Sanouillet, Picabia, Paris, 1964, 
p. 31) and to "1911" corrected to read "1913" in the Picabia 
scrapbook maintained by Mme. Olga Picabia. 




t22 Dances at the Spring. (Danses a la Source). 1912 

Oil on canvas, W/i x W/i" (120.6 x 120.6 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 1912"; u.r. "Danses a la Source" 

Lent by The Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Louise and 
Walter Arensberg Collection 

Provenance: 

Arthur J. Eddy, Chicago 

The Artist 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automnc, Paris, October i-Novembcr 8, 1912, 

no.1351 or Galerie de La Boe'tie, La Section d'Or, Paris, 

October 10-30, 1912, no. 128 

The Armory Show, New York, February 17-March 15, 191 3, 

110.415 (no.283 in Chicago; not exhibited in Boston) 

Art Institute of Chicago, The Arthur J. Eddy Collection, 1922, 

110.55 

Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress, Exhibition of 

Painting and Sculpture, June i-Novcnibcr 1, 1933, 110.786 

Art Institute of Chicago, Twentieth Century Art from the 



Louise and 1 1 'alter Arensberg Collection, October 20- 
December iS, 1949, 110.160 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, The Arensberg and 
Gallatin Collections, New York, February 7-April 16, 1961 
Munson-Willianis-Proctor Institute, Utica, and the Henry 
Street Settlement, New York, Armory Show, 50th Anniversary 
Exhibition, Utica, February 17-March 31, 1963 and New 
York, April 6-2S, 1963, 110.415 

Literature: 

Claude-Roger, La Comedie Artistique, Paris, October 5, 1912, 

pp. 62-S 

Buffet-Picabia, "Picabia l'inventeur," L'Oeil, Paris, June 1956, 
P-33 

Apollinaire, Les Peintres Cubistes, Paris, 1913 (presentation 
par Breunig ct Chevalier, 1965, pp.90, 1 15) 
Brown, The Story of the Armory Show, Greenwich, Connecti- 
cut, 1963, pp. 122-3, 2 75 
Golding, Cubism, New York, 1959, pp.161-2 
Rosenblum, Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art, New York, 
196LP.154 
Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 44 




Dances at the Spring has long been one of Picabia's most 
popular works - purchased out of the Armory Show by 
Arthur J. Eddy and from then onward frequently cited and 
reproduced. Its popularity seems to stem from the fact that 
it is a handsome painting in itself and comprehensible as a 
personal but simple, accessible brand of Cubism. As suggested 
in the text, however (p.20), it should not be judged solely by 
standards of Cubism set for the work of Braque and Picasso. 
It is one of the most resolved paintings of this period in 
Picabia's career, balancing abstraction and figuration, light 
and dark, straight and curved lines, two and three- 
dimensional space, and stability and motion. 

Picabia painted two versions of Danscs a la Source in 1912 
and exhibited them simultaneously at the Salon d'Automne 
and the Salon de La Section d'Or. One version has been 
lost; this extant work was probably submitted to the Salon 
d'Automne. 



123 Procession Seville. (La Procession Seville). 1912 

Oil on canvas, 47 '/.i x 47'/->" (120 x 120 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; u.r. "La Procession/Seville" 

Herbert and Nannettc Rothschild Collection, New York 

Provenance: 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 

Mine, Simone Collinet, Paris 

Prince Troubctzkoy, Paris 

Andre Breton, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galeric de La Boetie, La Section d'Or, Paris, October 10-30, 

1912, 110.124. 

The Armory Slww, New York, February 17-March 15, 1913, 

no. 416 (no. 288 in Chicago and 110.141 in Boston) 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, 110.7 



67 



Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-3 1, 

1930,110.5 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 401, Paris, March 1949, no. 10 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Le Cubisme, Paris, January 

30-April 9, 1953, 110.100 

Sidney Janis Gallery, A' Years ofjanis, New York. September 

29-November 1, 1958, 110.53 

Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, and the Henry 

Street Settlement, New York, Armory Slum 1 , sc'f/i Anniversary 

Exhibition, Utica, February 17-March 31, 1963 and New 

York, April 6-2S, 1963, 110.416 

Knoedler and Co., Inc, Seven Decades: i8gs-ig65, New York, 

April-May 1966 

Annmary Brown Memorial, Brown University, and 

Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Rothschild 

Collet lion. Providence, October 7-November 6, 1966, 110.116 

Literature: 

Pearlstein, "The Symbolic Language of Francis Picabia," 

Arts, New York, January 1956, p. 37 

Habasque, Cubism, Paris, 1959, pp.141-2 

Raynal, Modern Painting, Lausanne, i960, p. 1 53 

Brown, The Story of the Armory Show, Greenwich, 

Connecticut, 1963, pp. 122-3, 2 7<5 

Annmary Brown Memorial, Brown University, and 

Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Rothschild 

Collection, Providence, 1966, 110.116 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 

Paris, 110.4, !969, p. 77 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 44 

Procession Seville is the least abstract (and only extant) 
example of several canvases on this theme [Musique de 
procession, Procession, and Promenade) painted during 1912. 
Though now one of Picabia's most popular "Cubist" 
paintings, it incited hostile criticism, doggerel and cartoons 
(The World, New York, February 17, 1913, p. 16) at the 
Section d'Or and the Armory Show: 

Of fair Seville's towers 

I gain a faint impression 

But still am several hours 

in rear of that "procession." 

(Maurice Morris, The Sun, New York, 

February 23, 1913) 



24 Sad Figure. (Figure tristc). 1912 

Oil on canvas, 4672 x 47" (118 x 1 19.5 cm.) 
Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; u.r. "Figure tristc" 
Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Gift of The Seymour 
H. Knox Foundation, Inc. 
Provenance: 

M. Knoedler and Co., Inc, New York 
M. and Mmc. Jean Crotti, Paris 
the artist 
Exhibitions: 

Galerie de La Boctic, La Section d'Or, Paris, October 10-30, 
1912, no. 126 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 
no. 1 3 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, March 20-May 15, 1962, 110.18 
Leonard Hutton Galleries, Albert Gleizes and the Section 
d'Or, New York, October 28-December 5, 1964, 110.53a 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Painters of the Section d'Or, 
Buffalo, September 27-October 22, 1967, 110.38 
National Gallery, Paintings from the Albright-Knox Art 
Gallery, Washington, D.C., May iS-July 21, 1968, p. 31 
Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, tog Works from the Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery, Buenos Aires, October 23-November 30, 
1969, 110.23 

Literature: 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Painters of the Section d'Or, 
Buffalo, 1967, p.48 

A specific association is made in this painting between its 
dominant color, blue, and the emotional state ot "sadness." 



68 




6 9 




|25 New York. 1913 

Watcrcolor and gou.iclic, 2i 5 / a x 29 5 / s " (SS x 75- 2 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 1913"; u.l. "New York" 

Collection The Art Institute of Chicago, Alfred Sticglitz 
Collection 

Provenance: 

Alfred Sticglitz 
Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New 
York, March 17-April s, 1913 

Literature: 

Hapgood, "A Paris Painter," The Globe and Commercial 

Advertiser, New York, February 20, 1913, p. 8 

New York Tribune, "A Post-Cubist's Impressions of New 

York," March 9, 1913, part II, p.i: Picabia, "How New 

York Looks to Me," The New York American, March 30, 

1913, magazine section, p. 11 

Camera Work, New York, vol. 42-3, April-July 1913, pp. 48- 

51. These reviews and interviews are relevant for nos. 25-29 



26 New York. 191 3 

Watcrcolor on paper mounted on board, 29'/? x 21 5/ 8 " 

(75 x 55 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; u.r. "New York" 

Collection The Art Institute of Chicago, Alfred Stieglitz 
Collection 

Provenance: 

Alfred Stieglitz 

Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New 

York, March 17-April 5, 19 13 

Museum of Modern Art, Alfred Stieglitz Collection, New 

York, June 10-August 31, 1947 

Literature: 

See references for 110.25 





f27 Negro Song I. (Chanson negre). 1913 

Watercolor, 26'/s x 22" (66.3 x 55.9 cm.) 

Inscribed I.e. "Picabia"; u.l. "Chanson negre" 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Alfred Stieglitz 
Collection, 1949 

Provenance: 

Alfred Stieglitz 
Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New 

York, March 17-April 5, 1913 

Museum of Modern Art, Alfred Stieglitz Collection, New 

York, June io-August3i, 1947, 110.S7 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962 

no.22 



Literature: 

The Neil' York Herald, "Mr. Picabia Paints 'Coon Songs'," 

March iS, 1913, p. 12 

Monroe, "Davidson's Sculpture Proves that Artist has Ideas," 

Chicago Sunday Tribune, March 23, 1913, sect. 8, p. 5 

Pearlstein, "The Symbolic Language of Francis Picabia," 

Arts, New York, January 1956, pp.37, 39 

LeBot, Picabia, Paris, 1968, p. 81 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 53 

references for no.25 

A critic (sec The New York Herald above) wrote that soon 
after Picabia's arrival in New York, friends took him to a 
restaurant where "for the first time in his life he heard and 
saw an American Negro sing a 'Coon Song' in characteristic 
manner. The next day he put upon canvas his impression, 
making two pictures, each of which he named 'Negro Song'." 
Picabia also told Stieglitz that purple was the dominant hue 
of those paintings because it "sprang to the Frenchman's 
consciousness when he heard the song of the darky." (Swift, 
New York Sun, March 1913). 




|28 Star Dancer and Her School of Dance. (Danseuse 

etoile et son ecole de dansc). 19 13 

Watercolor, 22 x 30" (55.9 x 76.2 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 1913"; u.l. "Danseuse etoile et son ccolc 
de danse" 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Alfred Stieglitz 
Collection, 1949 

Provenance: 
Alfred Stieglitz 



Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New- 
York, March 17-April 5, 1913, 110.4 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, History of an American, Alfred 
Stieglitz, March 1944-January 1947, 110.106 
The Museum of Modern Art, Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 
New York, June 10-August 31, 1947, no. 88 

Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, "'Picabia Finventeur," L'Oeil, Paris, June 1956, 

P-35 

references for no.25 




Star Dancer on a Transatlantic Liner. (Danscusc 
etoile sur un Transatlantiquc). 1913 

Watercolor, 29'/; x 21 7s" (75 x 55 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 191 3"; u.r. "Danscusc etoile sur un 
transatlantiquc" 

Collection Simonc Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mme. Guillaume Apollmairc, Paris 
Guill.uimc Apollinaire, Paris 



Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New 

York, March 17-April 5, 1913, 110.3 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-Deccmber 5, 

1964, 110.10 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.13 

Literature: 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia ct la machine," Revue de I'art, Paris, 

no. 4, 1969, p.7S 

references for 110.25 




^30 Reverences. (Reverences), c. 191 3 

Watercolor on composition board, 291/2 x 21 "/a" (75 x 54.5 
cm.) 

Inscribed I.r. "Picabia"; u.l. "Reverences" 

Private Collection, Le Vesinet, France 

Provenance: 

Galerie Jeanne Biicher, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 7 

Hatton Gallery and the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 

Picabia, London, March-April 1964, 110.10 

In past writings, this work has sometimes been confused 
with the painting of 1915 entitled Reverence (no. 45). 



75 




76 



1"3 1 Udnie (Young America Girl; Dance). 

(Udnie (jeune fille americaine; danse)). 19 13 

Oil on canvas, Il8'/s x ilS'/s" (300 x 300 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia 1913"; u.c. "Udnie" 

Collection Musee National d'Art Modernc, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automne, Paris, November 15, 1913-January 5, 

1914, 110.1676 

Musee National d'Art Modernc, Painting in France igoo-1967, 

Paris, no. 3 1, 1968 (participating museums: National Gallery, 

Washington, D.C.; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

York; Boston Museum of Fine Arts; Art Institute of Chicago; 

De Young Museum, San Francisco) [110.31, 1968] 

Literature: 

Le Matin, Paris, December 1, 1913, p.i 

Dorival, "Les Nouvelles Artistiques," Les Nouvelles Litteraires, 

Paris, May 20, 1948 (attrib.) 

Buffet-Picabia, "Picabia l'inventeur," L'Oeil, Paris, June 1956, 

P-35 

Habasque, Cubism, Paris 1959, pp. 142-3 

Hunt, "The Picabia/Breton Axis," Artforum, September 1966, 

p. 17 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December, 1966, p. 3 13 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 

Paris, no.4, 1969, p. 77 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, pp.44, 53 



Udnie (Young American Girl; Dance) and Edtaonisl (Ecclesiasti- 
cal) provoked hostile criticism when first exhibited under 
these complete titles at the 1913 Salon d'Automne. Apolli- 
naire was almost alone in his praise of them (Chroniques 
d'Art, Breunig, ed., Paris, i960, pp.337, 342), and even his 
language seems evasive. After the Salon both paintings were 
set aside and largely forgotten until Duchamp and Breton 
inquired about them around 1947. Picabia found the 
paintings, restored them with the assistance of Christine 
Boumeestcr, and loaned them for special display at the 
Musee National d'Art Moderne in 1948. Udnie was pur- 
chased by that museum in 1949 and Edtaonisl made its way 
to The Art Institute of Chicago. Though subsequent recogni- 
tion has made them landmarks in Modern Art, neither Udnie 
nor Edtaonisl has lost its ability to befuddle the "experts." 
The invented titles of these paintings probably reflect 
Duchamp's experiments with grammar and the word games 
described by Apollinaire (Adema, Apollinaire, New York, 
1955, p. 151). Pearlstein has suggested that Udnie may be an 
anagram of "nudite." Rubin (Dada and Surrealist Art, New 
York, 1969, p. 44) endorses Pearlstein's theory, although an 
adaptation of Undine seems even more in accord with 
Picabia's experiences and statements relevant to the painting. 



*32 Edtaonisl (Ecclesiastical). (Edtaonisl 
(ecclesiastique)). 191 3 

Oil on canvas, iiS'/jX llS 3 / 8 " (302 x 300.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 1913"; u.c. "Edtaonisl" 

Collection The Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Armand Phillip Bartos 

Provenance: 

Mr. and Mrs. Armand Phillip Bartos 
the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automne, Paris, November 15, 1913-January 5, 
1914, 110.1675 

Galeric Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, no. 11 
Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 
Heritage, [Rubin, cd.], New York, March 27-June 9, 196S, 
no. 260 

Literature: 

See references for no. 31 

Isarlov, Picabia, Paris, 1929, p. 12 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of 

Chicago, 1961, p. 355 

Museum of Modern Art, Dacia, Surrealism ami Their Heritagi 

[Rubin, ed.[ New York, 1968, p. 27 

Rubin, Dacia and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p.54 




78 




+ 33 Catch as Catch Can. 191 3 

Oil on canvas, 39 5 /s x 32 '/Z (100.6 x 82 cm.) 

Inscribed u.l. "Catch as Catch Can" and I.e. "Edtaonisl 1913"; 
reverse "Picabia 191 3" 

Lent by the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Louise and 
Walter Arensberg Collection 

Provenance: 

Louise and Walter Arensberg 

Andre Breton 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

The Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

no. 1 1 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no. 10 

Galerie Briant-Robert, Picabia, Paris, November 7-30, 1927, 

no.13 

Museum of Modern Art, Fantastic Art, Dacia and Surrealism, 

New York, December 7, 1936-January 17, 1937, no. 459 

Art Institute of Chicago, Twentieth Century Art from the 

Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection, October 20- 

December 18, 1949, no. 161 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Arensberg Collection, 1954, 

no. 159 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Arensberg and 

Gallatin Collections, New York, February 7-April 16, 1961 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.20 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.5 

Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, Aires abstraitcs, Geneva, 1957, pp. 68-9 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 

Paris, 110.4, IQ 69> p-77 

Mme. Buffet-Picabia has recalled {Aires abstraitcs, pp.68-9) 
that while eating in a restaurant one evening, she, Apollinaire 
and Picabia became fascinated with an enormous and fear- 
some Chinese wrestler seated next to them. They followed 
him to the match of catch-as-catch-can and Picabia 
commemorated that evening's experience in Catch as Catch 
Can. A letter from Apollinaire to Mme. Buffet-Picabia 
(January 22, 1915, published in Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, 
Paris, 1965, pp. 536-7) lends support to her recollection, but 
the inscription "Edtaonisl 1913" suggests a more complex 
content incorporating somehow the "star dancer" (Mile. 
Napierkowska see pp.21 and 22). Given Picabia's love of 
hidden meanings, the title Catch as Catch Can could refer to 
Mile. Napierkowska as well as to the Chinese wrestler. Each 
was, in his own way, a devastating performer, and in the 
shattered planes of this painting Picabia has employed the 
colors of Uduie and Edtaonisl. 




1 34 Physical Culture. (Culture physique). 1913 

Oil on canvas, 35 ■/•> x 4 6 " (89.5 x 117 cm.) 

Signed and dated on reverse "Picabia 1913" 

Lent by the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Louise and 
Walter Arcnsberg Collection 

Provenance: 

Louise and Walter Arcnsberg 

Exhibitions: 

Salon des Independents, Paris, March i-April 30, 1914, 

no. 2619 

The Society of Independent Artists, First Annual Exhibition 

New York, April 10-May 6, 1917, 110.76 

Art Institute of Chicago, Twentieth Century Art from the 

Louise and Walter Arcnsberg Collection, October 20- 

December 18, 1949, no. 162 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Arensberg Collection, 

1954, 110.160 



Literature: 

Apollinaire, Cluonique 
pp.349, 365, 477-S 



cVArt, Breunig, ed., Paris, ic 



This impressive painting is one of the most abstract in all of 
Picabia's oeuvre, equally devoid ot recognizable sources in 
nature or in the artist's private life. In a review of the 1914 
Salon des Indepcndants, Apollinaire's praise of Physical 
Culture was so ambiguous that another critic, Gaston 
Thiesson, accused him (probably with some accuracy) 
of not liking Picabia's work and hiding behind words (see 
reference above in Chroniques a" Art). Subsequent critics have 
been noncommittal, preferring instead to focus on such 
contemporary works as Udnie and Edtaonisl. 




35 "Little" Udnie. c.1913-1914 

Oil on canvas, 77 1 /. x 77V2" (197 x 197 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; u.l. "Udnie" 

Lent by Galerie Cavalero, Cannes, France 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.21 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no.6 



Contemporary photographs verify that Udnie (110.31) was 
exhibited at the 1913 Salon d'Automne and not this painting 
whose thick, wire-like lines suggest a slightly later date in 
1913 or early 1914. Unless this second Udnie can be identified 
with a painting exhibited at the Photo-Secession Gallery 
(New York, January 12-26, 1915) and referred to by 
critics as Marriage comique, it remained in Picabia's 
possession and was not exhibited until 1962 when the Musee 
Cantini presented it as Le Petit Udnie. It is smaller than the 
first Udnie (110.31), and might be distinguished by the title 
"Little'" Udnie, but the title in French should be amended to 
La petite Udnie since her sex is unquestionably female. 




36 Udnie. Study for ? c.1913 



Pencil, 9>li x 7V4" (24. x 19.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; u.r. "Udnie" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mme. Simone Collinet 

Exhibitions: 

Galeric Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

no. 50 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, no.50 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, no. 1 1 




37 French Impetuosity. (Impetuosite francaise). 
c.1913-1914 

Watercolor on composition board, 21 '/a x 25 '// (54 x 64.S 

cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; 1.1. "Impetuosite Francaise" 

Collection Galerie Denise Rene, Paris 

Provenance: 

Private Collection 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Knoedler, Les Soirees de Paris, Paris, May 16-June 30, 

1958, no. 25 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 23 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 9 

Hatton Gallery and the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 

Picabia, London, March-April 1964, no. 11 




38 Animation. 19 14 

Watcrcolor, 20 3 / 4 x 251/4" (52.8 x 64.1 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia 1914"; u.l. "Animation" 

Rosamond Bcrnier Collection, New York 

Provenance: 

Mr. and Mrs. Roland Penrose, London 

Paul Eluard, Paris 



Exhibitions: 

The London Gallery, The Cubist Spirit in Its Time, London, 

March iS-May 3, 1947, no.27 

Matthicsen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, 110.19 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 8 

Hatton Gallery and the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 

Picabia, London, March-April 1964, no. 12 

Animation, unlike most of Picabia's contemporary paintings, 
seems to harbor no philosophical comment or reference to 
specific episodes in his life, although its formal properties - 
composition, line, form and color - do suggest a psychologi- 
cal state of "animation." 



84 




39 Predicament. (L'Embarras). 1914 

Watercolor, 20 7 / 8 x 25 5 / 8 " (53 x 65 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia 1914."; u.l. "Embarras" 

Collection Mrs. M. Victor Lcventritt, New York 

Provenance: 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

Andre Breton, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, 110.16 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, no. 12 



t-jo I Sec Again in Memory My Dear Udnic. 

(Jo revois en souvenir ma chore Udnie). 0.1914 

1 on canvas, 9S 1 /: x 78 >/j" (250 x 198.8 cm.) 

Inscribed I.r. "Picabia"; 1.1. "Je Revois En Souvenir Ma 
Cliere Udnie" 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art. New York, 
Hillm.m Periodicals Fund, 1954 



Provenance: 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 
Leonce Rosenberg, Paris 
the artist 
Exhibitions: 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291], Picabia, New- 
York, January 12-26, 1915 

Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 
1930, 110.7 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 41)1, Paris, March 1949, 110.9 
The Museum of Modern Art Dada, Surrealism ami Their 
Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, March 27-Junc 9, 196X, 
110.261 




Literature: 

Anonymous (probably E. L. Carey), "Art at Home and 

Abroad: News and Comments," New York Times, 

January 24, 1915, sect. 5, p. 11 (reprinted in Camera Work, 

New York, no. 48, October 1916, p. 17) 

Pearlstein, "The Symbolic Language of Francis Picabia," 

Arts, New York, January 1956, pp. 41-2 

Rosenblum, Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art, New York, 

1961, p. 156 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 3 13 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, 1968, p. 27 

Hamilton, Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1S80 to 1940, 

Baltimore, 1967, pp. 242-3 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, Paris, 

no. 4, 1969, p. 78 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 54 

The legacies of Cubism and of Duchamp's 1912 painting of 
The Bride (which he gave to Picabia) are evident in this work, 
but they have been transformed into one of the finest 
paintings in Picabia's oeuvre and an outstanding example of 
abstraction in French art prior to the First World War. 




T41 Girl Born without a Mother. (Fille nee sans 
mere), c.1915 

Ink, 10^2 x 8'/ 2 " (26.7 x 21.6 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; l.r. "Fille nee sans mere" 

Collection The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 
The Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949 

Provenance: 

Alfred Stieglitz 

Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

no. 12 

The Museum of Modern Art, Alfred Stieglitz Collection, New 

York, June 10-August 31, 1947, no. 86 

Art Institute of Chicago, Alfred Stieglitz, 1948, no. 121 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., New 

York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 82 

Literature: 

Haviland, Statement in 291, nos.7-8, September-October 

1915 

Pearlstein, "The Symbolic Language of Francis Picabia," 

Arts, New York, January 1956, pp. 37-43 



Bonnet, "Apollinaire et Picabia," Revue des Lettres Modemes, 

Paris, November 1963, p. 73 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 314 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

196S, pp. 82-3 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 

Paris, 110.4, 1969, p. 78 

Rubin, Dada and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 53 

This drawing is close in style to I See Again in Memory My 
Dear Udnic (no. 40), but a clearer suggestion of springs and 
rods also associates it with the machinist paintings of 1915 - 
the year in which Girl Born without a Mother is first docu- 
mented by a reproduction in 291 (110.4, June IQ I5)- This 
concept of the machine as a girl born without a mother 
(reversible to woman as a machine that serves man) 
continued in Picabia's painting (110.49) a "d his poetry 
(Poemes et dessins de la fille nee sans mere, Lausanne, 1918). It 
has also continued to interest historians, prompting references 
to alchemy as a magical means of fertilization (see Hulten 
above), to the birth of Athena from the forehead of Zeus and 
the feminine gender of the French noun "machine" (see 
Pearlstein above). However, even if one adds the Old 
Testament story of the creation, the genealogy of Picabia's 
Girl Born without a Mother has not yet been fully established. 



87 







T4 2 Here, This Is Stieglitz. (Ici, e'est ici Sticglitz). 
1915 

Ink, 29'/ s x 20" (75.9 x 50.S cm.) 
Inscribed l.r. "F. Picabia/1915/New York"; 

u.l. "Ici, e'est ici Sticglitz/foi ct amour"; u.c. "Ideal" 

Collection The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Alfred 
Sticglitz Collection, 1949 

Provenance: 

Alfred Sticglitz 

Exhibitions: 

An American Place, Exhibition, New York, October 27- 

December 27, 1937, no.66 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Alfred Sticglitz, March 1944- 

January 1947, no. 169 

The Whitney Museum of American Art, The Decade of the 

Armory Show, New York, February-April 1963, no. 28 



The Museum of Modern Art, Hulten, cd., Tlie Machine, 

New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p.87 

Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, "Some Memories of Pre-Dada: 

Picabia and Duchamp," The Dada Painters and Poets, Robert 

Motherwell (ed.), New York, 1951, PP.257-5S 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 3 14 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, 1968, p.27 

Will-Lcvaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de Fart, 

Paris, 110.4, 1969. P-79 

Rubin, Di7i/ii and Surrealist Art, New York, 1969, p. 56 

Number 5-6 of 291 (July-August 191 5) was devoted almost 
exclusively to such machine object-portraits by Picabia, and, 
as substantial numbers of 291 were regularly mailed to Paris, 
his new machinist style was known there by the late summer 
of 1915. 




*43 Gabrielle Buffet. She Corrects Manners 

Laughingly. (Elle corrige les moeurs en riant). 
1915 

Gouache and watercolor on board, 23 x i&'/i" (58.5 x 47 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Lc Fidele/Picabia"; u.l. "Gabrielle Buffet"; 

l.r. "Elle corrige les moeurs en riant" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

Provenance: 

Cordier-Ekstrom, Inc., New York 

Brook Street Gallery, London 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

110.10 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, 110.18 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., New 

York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p.92 

Literature: 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 
New York, 1968, p.92 

In the early fall of 19 15, Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia went to 
New York to save or "shield" her husband from the 
consequences of his status as a military deserter. This may 
have prompted him to select an automobile windshield for 
her object-portrait, but interpretation is largely guesswork in 
the face of a mocking signature by Picabia "the faithful" 
who was never noted for his fidelity. 



t44 This Thing Is Made to Perpetuate My Memory. 
(Cette chose est faite pour perpetuer nion 
souvenir. Les Disques). 19 15 

Oil and metallic paint on board, 39 x 40" (99 x 101.6 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; u.c. "Cette Chose Est Faite Pour 
Perpetuer M011 Souvenir/Lis/C'est Clair Comme Lc Jour"; 
1.1. "lis Tournent"; l.r. "Vous Avez Des Oreillcs Et Vous 
N'Entendrez Pas" 

Collection The Arts Club of Chicago 

Provenance: 

The Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Mine. Buffet-Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

no. 2 

probably Salon des Ind&pendants, Paris, January 28-February 

29, 1920, 110.3550 

probably Au Sans Pareil, Picabia, Paris, April 16-30, 1920, 

110.5 (as "C'est clair comme le jour") 



Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 18- 
Novcmbcr 16, 1946, no. 5 (as "Les Disques") 
Galerie Chalette, Construction and Geometry in Painting, New- 
York, March 31-June 4, i960 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Phis by Minus, Buffalo, March 
3-April 14, 1968, 110.152 

Literature: 

The Sun, "Happening in the World of Art," New York, 

January 23, 1916, sect. 5, p.S 

Camficld, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 3 16 



Beginning with his machinist style, Picabia often printed 
comments as well as titles on the paintings. These inscriptions 
are always significant, though often their veiled meanings 
cannot be determined. Here one inscription - "They turn. 
You have cars and will not hear" - probably identifies the 
black discs as gramophone records, but the instruction to 
"Read," "It is as clear as day" merely mocks the spectator 
and undermines the visual order of this striking composition. 




45 Reverence. (Reverence). 191 5 

Oil and metallic paint on board, 39'/-4 x 39'/j" (99-7 x 99-7 
cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; u.c. "Reverance"; 1.1. "Objet qui ne 
fait pas l'eloge du temps passe" 

Collection The Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May 
Collection 

Provenance: 

Mrs. Sadie A. May 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Mme. Buffet-Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

no. 3 

Salon des Indipendants, Paris, January 28-February 29, 1920, 

110.3555 

Au Sans Pareil, Picabia, Paris, April 16-30, 1920, no. 4 

Galerie Rene Drouin, jgi, Paris, March 1949, 110.15 



Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 195O, 

no.4 (as "Dedee d'Amerique") 

Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp and Picabia, New York, 

December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954, 110.2 

Michigan State University, Turn of the Century Exhibition, 

East Lansing, April 10-May 4, 1964 

Baltimore Museum of Art, 1014, October 6-November 15, 

1964, 110.186 

Literature: 

The Christian Science Monitor, "Picabia's Puzzles," Boston, 

January 29, 191 6 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The 

Art Bulletin, New York September-December 1966, p. 3 16 





46 Paroxysm of Sadness. (Paroxyme dc la doulcur). 
1915 

Oil on board, li'/ix 31 1 /;" (80 x 80 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "F. Picabia/Dans la villc Madreporique/ 
September 191 5"; u.l. "Paroxyme/De La Doulcur" 

Collection Simone Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Galeric Francois Petit, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 

110.7 

Galeric Furstcnbcrg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-Dccember 

5, 1964, no. 1 1 



Galeric Krugicr, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

110.52 

Kunsthaus Ziirich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

110.195 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, no. 14 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, cd., New York, March 27-June 9, 1968, 

110.262 



92 




47 Machine without Name. (Machine sans nom). 
1915 

Gouache and metallic paint on board, 47 l ji x 26" 

(120.6 x 66 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; u.r. "Machine Sans Nom" 
Collection Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania 

Provenance: 

G. David Thompson 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York. 

Exhibitions: 

Modern Gallery, Picabia, New York, January 5-25, 1916, 



Salon des Independants, Paris, January 28-February 29, 1920, 

110.3552 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, 110.14 

Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, 110.3 

Walker Art Center, The Classic Tradition in Contemporary 

Art, Minneapolis, April 24-June 28, 1953, 110.103 

Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp and Picabia, New York, 

December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954, 110.3 

Contemporary Arts Association of Houston, The Art of the 

Machine, September 25-November 9, 1958 

Art Associates of Lake Charles, The Trojan Horse, Lake 

Charles, Louisiana, i960. 

Literature: 

Brown, American Painting from the Armory Show to The 

Depression, Princeton, 1955, pp.112-13. 117. 




48 A Little Solitude in the Midst of Suns. (Petite 
Solitude au milieu des soleils). c.1915-1920 

Ink and gouache, i8 7 /s x 13 '/:" (48 x 34.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; 

u.r. "Petite Solitude/Au Milieu Des Soleils"; 

1.1. "Tableau Pcint Pour Racontcr Non Pour Prouver" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mine. Olga Picabia 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Krugicr, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 

1966, 110.63 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-Septembcr 

30, 1966, 110.62 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.31 

Musee de Strasbourg, Europe iqiS, May 8-September is, 

1968, 110.197 

Literature: 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Museum of 
Modern Art, Huten, ed., New York, 1968, p. 85 

The location of the original version of A Little Solitude in the 
Midst of Suns (first exhibited by this title at the Modern 
Gallery, New York, January 1916) is unknown. At least 
three versions of it are now extant - the Schwarz Gallery 
painting in this exhibition, another in the Reutersward 
collection in Stockholm, and a third formerly at the Kaplan 
Gallery in London. Still more versions are known through 
reproductions. All differ from each other in size, media and 
details. Some of them were probably done after the original - 
perhaps in 1920 when Marie de La Hire published a booklet 
(Francis Picabia, Galerie La Cible, Paris, 1920) with a deluxe 
edition bearing ripped-in prints that Picabia may have hand- 
tinted. 




No suggestions regarding the content of .4 Little Solitude. . . 
have been made until recently when K. G. Pontus Hulten 
related the title to the female sex organ (The Machine, 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1968, p. 85) and Mme. 
Buffet-Picabia claimed that the title was derived from a poem 
by Jules Laforgue (conversation with the author, July 1965). 
More satisfying interpretations await a correlation of such 
ideas with the inscriptions on A Little Solitude . . . and its 
machine sources. The latter include a separator (fig. 48a) 
and an unidentified machine; in the original painting 
(reproduced in Arts and Decoration, New York, April 1916, 
p. 286) the inscriptions also include a key in the lower right 
corner that identifies the numbered circles or "suns": 

1. Soleil ecclesiastique 

2. Soleil interne de lycee 

3. Soleil maitre d'Hotel 

4. Soleil orhcier supericur 

5. Soleil officier artiste 

The identity of these "suns" suggest Duchamp's malic 
moulds, and it is worth noting that they have been "separated" 
in an arrangement that reserves for the artist a "little" sun 
at the top. 



94 




49 Girl Born without a Mother. (Fille nee sans 
mere), c.1916-1918 

Gouache, gold metallic paint and railway machine diagram, 
l9=/a x 25 1/2* (50 x 65 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. two words effaced followed by "Fille nee sans 
mere"; l.r. "Barcelona Picabia" 

u.c. effaced words "Cette machine le pouvoir"? 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

Provenance: 

Brook Street Gallery, London 

Exhibitions: 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 83 







50 Machine Turn Quickly. (Machine tournez vite). 
c.1916-1918 

Gouache on board, 191/., x i2 5 /s" (49 x 32 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; top "Machine Tournez Vite"; 
1.1. "1 Femmc/2 Homme" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Fred Shore, New York 

Provenance: 

Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Exhibitions: 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, 110.2 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 1966, no. 53 

Civico Padiglione, Datia in Italia, Milan, June 24-Scptember 

30, 1966, no. 52 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-Novcmbcr 17, 1966, 

no. 196 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, no. 1 8 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, March 27-June 9, 196S, 

110.263 



96 



51 Study for Sweetheart. (Etude pour Novia). 
c.1916-1917 

Watercolor, 22>/4 x 17" (56.5 x 43.2 cm., frame window) 
Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; 1.1. "Etude Pour Novia" 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert Motherwell, New York 
Provenance : 

Weyhe Gallery, New York 
Exhibitions: 

Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, no. 11 
Sidney Janis Gallery, Dada, New York, April 15-May 9, 
1953, 110.167 

Picabia painted at least four Sweethearts during his machinist 
period, all of them somewhat different in style, though 
possessing similar images of wheels and shafts. The only 
well-documented version was signed and dated 1917 and 
served as the cover for the first issue of 391 (Barcelona, 
January 25, 1917). The full title of that painting, Sweetheart 
of the First Occupant (Novia an premier occupant), identifies the 
sweetheart with Eve, a woman born without a mother, and 
suggests a role of creator-god for the artist, given his ability 
to create without the collaboration of a mother. 



r 52 Mechanical. (Mecanique). c.1916-1918 

Ink and watercolor on board, 22'/4 x i8 3 / 8 " (56.5 x 46.7 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Mecanique" 

Collection Galerie Denise Rene, Paris 

Provenance: 

Leonce Rosenberg, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Denise Rene, Art abstrait constructif, Paris, 1961, no. 52 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.24 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 10 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Arts, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, no. 13 

Literature: 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 

Paris, no.4, 1969, p. 78 

No known documents support the date 1913-14 consistent- 
ly attributed to this drawing. An inscription on the back, 
"New York 1913," does not appear to be by Picabia. The 
painterly style of this machine is compatible with works of 
c. 1916-18 (nos.51 and 53), and it is mounted alongside such 
painterly machines (including Study for Sweetheart, no. 51) in 
the earliest extant document, a photograph of Picabia's home 
in Tremblay-sur-Mauldre (occupied 1922-24, see p. 35). 




IVeo&a. 




53 Wheel Which Regulates the Movement of the 
Machine. (Volant qui Reguralise [sic| le 
mouvement cle la machine), c. 19 16-191 8 

Oil on board, 22'/: x 18'// (57 x 47 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Picabia"; 1.1. "Volant qui Reguralise [sic] Le 
Mouvement Dc La Machine" 

Collection Simone Collinet, Pans 

Provenance: 

Mme. Germaine Everhng-Picabia, Cannes 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June >-July 5, 1956, 110.15 

Kunsthallc Diisseldorf, Dada, September 5-October 19, 1958, 

110.194 

Stedelijk Museum, Dada, Amsterdam, December 195S— 

January 1959, 110.184 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November, 

1959, 110.22 



Moderna Museet, Rorelse I Konsten, Stockholm, May 17- 

September 3, iyfii, 110.143 

Kunsthallc Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.13 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.28 

Hatton Gallery and The Institute of Contemporary Arts, 

Picabia, London, March-April 1964, 110.15 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4— December 5, 

1964, 110.12 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 1966, 110.60 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

110.198 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, no.25 

Literature: 

Will-Lev.iillant, "Picabia et la machine," Rente dc I'art, 

Paris, 110.4, IQ 69. P-7& 




t54 Amorous Parade. (Parade amoureuse.) 1917 
Oil on canvas, 38 x 29" (96.5 x 73.7 cm.) 
Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia 1917"; I.e. "Parade Amoureuse'' 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Morton G. Neumann, Chicago 
Provenance: 

Simone Collinet, Paris 
Hotel Drouot, Paris 
Marcel Duchamp 
the artist 
Exhibitions: 

Cirque d'Hiver, Paris, December 1919 
Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March S, 1926, no. 26 
Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 
1930, no.9 

The Museum of Modern Art, Cubism and Abstract Art, 
Museum of Modern Art, Barr, ed., New York, March 2- 
April 19, 1936, no. 202 

Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism, Museum of Modern art, 
December 7, 1936-January 17, 1937, p. 195 



Galerie Rene Drouin, 4Qi, Paris, March 1949, no. 17 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 1951, no.i 

Sidney Janis Gallery, Dada, New York, April 15-May 9, 

I0 53> no. 163 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 89 

Literature: 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The 

Art Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p.318 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

New York, 1968, p. 89 

Will-Levaillant, "Picabia ct la machine," Revue de Vart, Paris, 

110.4, 1969, p. 80 

As noted by Hulten (see Literature above), there is nothing 
inherently erotic about this machine, but its title triggers 
our imagination, and within a matter of moments a merely 
droll, gangling apparatus is charged with sexual connotations 
that can be quite confusing or suggestive, hilarious and 
unsettling. 




99 



t>5 Universal Prostitution. (Prostitution univcrselle). 
0.1916-1917 

Ink. tempera and metallic paint on board. 20 J /s x 37'/»" 
"4 > X94.3 cm.) 

Inscribed u.r. "Prostitution/Universelle"; 

u.c. "Convier... Ignorer... Corps Humain"; 

l.r. "Sexe Feminin Ideologique" and "Sac de Voyage" 

Collection Yale University Art Gallery, Gift of Collection 
Societe Anonyme 

Provenance: 

Marcel Duchamp 
Exhibitions: 

Worcester Art Museum, Sociite" Anonyme, November 3- 
December 5, 1921, no. 32 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Rousseau, Redon, 
and Fantasy, New York, May 31-September 8, 1968 
The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed.. 
New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 95 

Literature: 

Camheld, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 
Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 3 18 
Will-Levaillant, "Picabia et la machine," Revue de I'art, 
no.4, 1969, p. 80 




Four iN Ham o 




56 Portrait of Marie Laurencin, Four in Hand. 
c.1917 

Ink and watercolor on board, 22 x i7 7 /»" (56 x 45.5 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; 

u.l. "Portrait dc Marie Laurcncin/Four in Hand"; 

I.e. "A L'Ombre D'Un Boche"; 

r.c. "Le Fidele Coco"; 

l.r. "II N'Est Pas Donne A Tout Le Monde/D'Aller A 
Barcelone", and "A Mi-Voix" 

Collection Mrs. Barnett Malbin, Birmingham, Michigan 
(The Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection) 

Provenance: 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 
Exhibitions: 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 18-- 
November 16, 1946, no. 17 

Yale University, Gertrude Stein's "Picture for a Picture", New 
Haven, February 11 -March 11, 1951 

Rose Fried Gallery, Some Areas of Search, New York, May- 
June, 195 1 

Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp and Picabia, New York, 
December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954, 110.4 
Detroit Institute of Arts, The Winston Collection, September- 
November 1957 

Detroit Institute of Arts, French Drawings and Watercoiors, 
January 1962 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 20th Century 
Drawings, New York, November 6, 1963-January 5, 1964 
The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten ed., 
New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 88 

Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, Aires abstraites, Geneva, 1957, p. 37 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, pp.3 17-18 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten cd., 

New York, 1968, p.88 

LeBot, Picabia, Paris, 1968, pp. 127-8 

This fanciful, non-functional machine, rendered with disdain 
for technical finesse and sprinkled with seemingly absurd 
inscriptions, strikes most spectators as an anti-art, anti- 
machine statement. To the contrary, Picabia was not 
particularly concerned about art or technology; he produced 
a symbolic portrait of Marie Laurencin in which mechanical 
forms and inscriptions arc intimately related. The inscriptions 
identify the subject, and refer to the conditions of her life 
in Barcelona in 1916-17, to her dog Coco and to her 
husband - a German (boche) whose nationality did cast a 
shadow over their life during the war. Mme. Buffet-Picabia 
recalls that Picabia associated the liveliness of Marie Laurencin 
with the effect of a ventilator (see Literature above), and 
Mme. Albert Gleizes (also depicted in a machine form during 
this 1916-17 period in Barcelona) reports that Picabia 
attached great importance to these portraits which he 
considered "tres ressemblants" (unpublished memoirs 
quoted from an authorized typescript by courtesy of Mr. 
Daniel Robbins). 



t57 Music Is Like Painting. (La Musiquc est comme 
la peinture). c. 1913-1917 

Watercolor and gouache(?) on board, 48 x 26" (122 x 66 cm.) 

Inscribed I.e. "Picabia"; u.l. "La Musiquc Est Comme La 
Peinture" 

Collection N. Manoukian, Paris 

Provenance: 

Hotel Drouot, Pans 

M. Jacques Douect, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably The Society of Independent Artists, First Annual 

Exhibition, New York, April 10-May 6, 1917, no. 77 

probably Galerie Povolosky, Picabia, Paris, December 10-25, 

1920, 110.45 

Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-3 1 , 

1930, no. 6 

Galerie Rene Drouin, jgi. Pans, March 1949, 110.13 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, 110.10 

Hotel Drouot, Public Sale, Paris, May 25, 1959, 110.21 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.25 

KunsthaUe Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 11 

Literature: 

LeBot, Francis Picabia, Paris, 1968, p. 121 

Music Is Like Painting offers a simple, striking visual ex- 
perience - and puzzling questions of fact and interpretation. 
It is first documented in New York at the 1917 exhibition of 
The Society of Independent Artists. However, it was 
exhibited with Physical Culture (110.34) of x 9!3. and affinities 
with his work of 1913-14 arc suggested by its apparent 
abstractness and a title asserting the symbolist concept of 
correspondance. 

While Picabia's espousal of correspondance is well- 
documented, no obvious reference to it is suggested by the 
source of this composition - a diagram ot the effect of a 
magnetic field on alpha, beta and gamma particles (fig. 57a). 
Multiple versions of this painting complicate its identity in 
past exhibitions. The Manoukian version is probably the 
original work; the other versions are much smaller in size 
and may be cither studies for the original or hand-tinted 
prints for the deluxe edition of Marie de La Hire's booklet, 
Francis Picabia, Paris, 1920. 




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58 Music Is Like Painting. (La Musique est comme 
la peinture). c. 191 5-1920 

Watercolor, 9 7 / 8 x 5'/s" (23.5 x 13 cm.) 

Inscribed I.e. "Picabia"; u.l. "La Musique Est Comme La 
Peinture" 

Collection Prof. Guido Rossi, Milan 

Provenance: 

Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Exhibitions: 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964 (not 

in catalogue) 

Galerie Krugicr, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

110.51 

Civico Padiglionc, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-Septembcr 

30, 1966, no. 51 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.16 



59 Abstract Lausanne. (Abstrait Lausanne), c.1918 

Oil or gouache on board, 29^2 x 19 1 //' (75 x 49 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; signed and dated on reverse 

Collection Simone Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mme. Germaine Everling-Picabia, Cannes 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, no.16 

Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, Dada, September 5-October 19, 1958, 

no. 198 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, no. 24 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

110.19 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.28 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Art, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, no.17 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-December 5, 

1964, no. 13 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

110.204 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.28 

Abstract Lausanne is another unique work in Picabia's 
career - difficult to relate to his contemporary production, 
but, in this instance, suggestive of both Miro's abstract 
paintings eight years later and of Picabia's own abstract 
paintings during the 1940s. 

Interpretive efforts are not invited by the apparent abstrac- 
tion and buoyant naivete of this work, but forms always 
meant something to Picabia and these seem no exception. 
Among Picabia's associates, the dashed-spiral motif might 
have been most closely associated with Jarry's Pere Ubu, but 
it is a mysterious, ubiquitous motif in early modern art - here 
combined with forms evocative of stars, orbs and perhaps 
the sea. 



To NE rtouRRAi f*S TouT EMflFR, 




v_y 



t6o Guillaumc Apollinaire. c.1918 



Watercolor and ink, 22 s /g x i7'/s" (57-4 x 45.4 cm. frame 
window) 

Inscribed l.r. "Maitrc De Soi-Meme/Picabia"; 
u.c. "Tu Nc Mourras Pas Tout Enticr"; 
c. "Guillaumc Apollinairc/Irritable Poete" 

Private Collection 

Provenance: 

Robert Friedman, New York 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Galerie Furstcnberg, Paris 

Andre Breton, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, 110.22 

Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, 110.12 

Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp and Picabia, New York, 

December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954, 110.6 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 29 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.14 



Traditionally this drawing has been dated 1917, but stylistic 
features suggest a date of 191S-19 and the inscription, "You 
will never completely die," indicates an homage to 
Apollinaire who died in November 1918. Neither the 
intended symbolism nor the machine source for this object 
portrait has been discovered. 



j6i Bring Me There. (M'amenez-y). c.1918-1920 

Oil on board, 56>/s x 40'/2" (142.5 x 102.9 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; 

c. "M' Amenez-Y" ; 

t. "Portrait A L'Huile De Rincin!"; 

1.1. "Peinture Crocodile/Ratelier D'Artiste" and "Pont- 

L'EvSque" 

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
Helena Rubenstein Fund, 1968 

Provenance: 

Estate of Jean (Hans) Arp 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 18- 

November 16, 1946, 110.7 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, no.6 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.32 



Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.29 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

no. 1 99 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, March 27-June 9, 1968, 

110.266 

Literature: 

Jean, History of Surrealism, London, i960, p. 86 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, 1968, pp.27, 189 

The exact date of Bring Me There is not known, but its title 
was current in other works of 1919-20 (The Double World, 
fig. 1 1), and a Dada spirit prevails in both the style and the 
inscriptions of this painting. The contrast of precise machine 
forms and painterly brushwork may operate as a formal 
counterpart to the contrast of the title, Bring Me There, and the 
surrounding inscriptions - "Portrait of castor oil" (a Laxative), 
"Artist's false teeth" and a strong cheese ("Pont-1'Eveque"). 
Rubin and Jean (see Literature above) have noted that 
"M'amenez-y" is a substitution for the "Amenez-y-moi," 
and involves a play on the word "amnesic." 




Beware of Wet Paint. (Prenez garde a 
la peinture). c.1917-1919 

Oil, enamel and metallic paint on canvas, 36 1 /: x 28-74" 
(93 x -2.5 cm.) 

Inscribed at bottom "Prenez Garde a la Peinture"; 
l.r. "Francis Picabia"; others 

Collection Moderna Musect, Stockholm 

Provenance: 

Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 

Galerie Furstenberg, Paris 

Mine. Andre Breton 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Au Sans Pareil, Picabia, Paris, April 16-30, 1920, 110.7 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no. 19 

Galerie Leoncc Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 

1930, no. 10 

Galerie Rene Drouin, jgi, Paris, March 1949, no. 18 

Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, 110.5 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, no. 14 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 86 

Both the formal properties of this undated painting and the 
impertinence of its title seem most closely related to 
documented works of 1917-19. 




PRLNEZ CAROL ... PFl N T U R E 





t63 The Child Carburetor. (L'Enfant 
carburateur). c.1919 

Oil, gilt, pencil and metallic paint on plywood, 49V4 x 39 7 /s" 
(126.4 x 101.3 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; 

u.l. "L'Enfant Carburateur"; 

elsewhere "Dissolution De Prolongation," "Flux Et Reflux 

Des Resolutions," "Sphere De La Migraine," "Detruire Le 

Futur," "Methode Crocodile," "Value En Jaquette" (almost 

obliterated l.r.) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New 
York 

Provenance : 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Matta, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automne, Paris, November i-December 10, 1919, 

no.1533 

Galerie Povolosky, Picabia, Paris, December 10-25, 1920, 

no. 44 

The Museum of Modern Art, Fantastic Art, Dada, and 

Surrealism, Barr, ed., New York, December 7, 1936- 

January 17, 1937, pp.195, 257 



The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., New 
York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p.95 

Literature: 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 
Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, pp.320-1 
The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 
New York, 196S, p.95 

A balance ot striking visual properties and suggestive content 
makes Child Carburetor one of Picabia's best machinist 
paintings. Though reminiscent of his work of 1915 (see 
nos.44, 46), its asymmetrical composition indicates a later 
date - probably 1919, given the evidence of its first exhibi- 
tion and the witness of Mine. Everling-Picabia ("C'etait hier 
Dada," Les Oeuvres Libres, Paris, June 1955, p. 129). 
Child Carburetor is based on an engineer's diagram of an 
actual carburetor (fig. 63a), that part of a gasoline motor 
which controls the mixture of gas and air to secure maximum 
firing of the cylinders. Considered in the context of 
Duchamp's Large Glass (with its bride that is a kind of 
"motor" operated by "love gasoline"), Child Carburetor also 
becomes a love machine whose forms and inscriptions 
abound in sexual analogies. 





64 Balance, c.1919 

Oil on board, 23-7 s x 17 1 // (60 x 44 cm., frame window) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; u.r. "Balance" 

Collection Lillian H. Florsheim, Chicago 

Provenance: 

B.C. Holland Gallery, Chicago Everett Ellin Gallery, 



Los Angeles 
Galerie Paul Gi 



me, Pans 



Though Balance is undated, its general inventory of rods, 
springs, circles and undulating lines is compatible with other 
works of c.1919. The concentric circles in the upper right 
also seem relevant to Picabia's watercolor drawings of 1922 
dealing with optical and electrical phenomena. 



^65 Serpentins. c.1919-1922 

Oil on wood, 24 x iS" (61 x 45.8 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; u.l. "Serpentins" 

Collection Gertrude Stein Gallery, New York 

Provenance: 

Richard Feigcn Gallery, Chicago 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automne, Paris, November l-December 10, 1919, 



1 lure are two versions of Serpentins. One in the Matta 
collection is larger (32x21 '/ 4 ") and more skctchily brushed, 
but the two paintings arc otherwise identical in color, 
composition and inscriptions. Proper identification of these 
two Serpentins has been accordingly difficult since one of 
them was first exhibited at the 1919 Salon d'Automne in Paris. 



66 Alarm Clock I. (Reveil matin). 1919 

Ink, 121/2 x 9" (31.8 x 23 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; l.r. "Reveil Matin" 

Collection Mrs. Barnett Malbin, Birmingham, Michigan 
(The Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection) 

Provenance: 

Tristan Tzara 

Exhibitions: 

Detroit Institute of Arts, The Winston Collection, September 

27-November 3, 1957 

Detroit Institute of Arts, French Drawings and Watercolors, 

January 1962 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Machine, Hulten, ed., 

New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 1969, p. 90 

Literature: 

Buffet-Picabia, "Memories of Pre-Dada: Picabia and 

Duchamp," Dada Painters and Poets, Motherwell, ed., New 

York, 195 1, p. 266 

Arp, Statement in Picabia in Memorium, Orbes, Paris, April 

20, 1955 

Arp never forgot the Zurich dadaists' first meeting with 
Picabia (see Literature above). Picabia was dismantling an 
alarm clock in his hotel room, and they looked on with 
delight as he dipped parts of the clock into ink, pressed them 
on a paper and finished the composition by adding a few 
lines and inscriptions. This drawing was selected as the inner 
cover for Dada 4-5 (Zurich, May 15, 1919). 




67 Alarm Clock II. (Reveil matin), c.1919 
Ink, 13 x 10" (33 x 25.5 cm.) 
Inscribed 1.1. "Reveil Matin" 
Collection Prof. Guido Rossi, Milan 
Provenance: 

Schwarz Gallery, Milan 
Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia 
Exhibitions: 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 
30, 1966, no. 61 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 
2, 1967, no. 32 

Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their Heritage, 
Rubin ed., New York, March 27-June 9, 1968. 
This drawing appears to be exactly contemporary in date 
with Alarm Clock I (110.66). A completely hand-drawn alarm 
clock composition, signed and dated "Zurich 1918," exists in 
a Picabia scrapbook (vol.4, P- I2 ) at the Bibliotheque 
Litteraire Jacques Doucet, Paris. 




RE\ eiL MAT 1/ 




68 Tabac-Rat or Dance ot Saint Guy. (Tabac-Rat 
or Dansc dc Saint-Guy), c.1919-1921 

Cord and cardboard within a frame, 35 7 /s x 2'j i li (91 x 70 
cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; 
center "Tabac-Rat"; 
u.l. Danse de Saint-Guy 

Collection Succession Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Probably the Salon tics Indipendants, Paris, January 28- 

Fcbruary 28, 1922, no. 2884 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 18- 

November 16, 1946, 110.16 

Galcric Rene Drouin, jgt, Paris, March 1949, 110.24 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December4, 1951, no. is 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.42 



Literature: 

Notice, L'Eclw dc Paris, December 17, 1921, p. 2 

Prevot, Salon review, Lc Midi, Toulouse, February 19, 1922, 

P-l 

Charbonnier, Lc Monologue du Peintre, Paris, 1959, p. 136 

Dance oj Saint Guy was the only unrejected work among 
Picabia's three entries to the 1922 Salon des [ndependants. 
It was described in advance of the Salon (sec L'Eclw de Paris 
in Literature above) as: 

A frame, - gilded ? one still does not know, - but 
grilled like a cage. Behind the trellis, will be fastened 
on the wall a sheet-iron wheel of a thickness suitable 
for white mice to activate in the manner of squirrels. 
Very proud of his painting(?) Mr. Picabia has already 
informed the Committee that he will post, at his 
expense, a guard... charged with receiving from the 
public gifts in bread crumbs. 

(Author's translation.) 




Subsequent reviews said nothing of the squirrel cage, but a 
photograph (Fig. 68a) (The Little Review, London, Spring 
1922) probably depicts what was exhibited, and a contemp- 
orary review identified the inscriptions as "Tabac," "Je 
me couche" and "Quel beau soleil" (see Prevot in Literature- 
above). 

Dance of Saint Gny could have been assembled as early as 
1919 or 1920, for Breton mentioned a "tableau en cordes" 
in a letter to Picabia on February 15, 1920 (Sanouillet, Dada 
a Paris, Paris, 1965, p. 507) and Picabia's stage design for the 
"Manifestation Dada" in March 1920 (p. 28) seems related 
to such wire and cardboard constructions. Dance of Saint Gny 
acquired a new title, Tabac-Rat, by the time of its exhibition 
at the Galerie Rene Drouin in 1949, and probably acquired a 
new design then too, when Picabia rearranged the old, loose 
cords (conversation with Mme. Olga Picabia in July 1968). 
Despite these changes in its form, Picabia insisted that Tabac- 
Rat (see Charbonnier in Literature above) be suspended away 
from the wall to permit movement and transparency to 
become elements of the work. 




*6$ The Ivy Unique Eunuch. (Le Lierre unique 
eunuque). c.1920 

Ripolin on board, 291/2 x 4i 3 /s" (75 x I0 5 cm.) 
Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; 
center "Le Lierre Uniquc/Eunuque"; 
1.1. "Machine Co" 

Collection M. von Meyenburg, Basel 

Provenance: 

Simone Collinet, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Salon dcs Indipendants, Paris, January 23-February 28, 1921, 

110.2764a 

The forms in the composition resemble cells more than 
machines, though a metallic quality is imparted by the 
silvery gray palette and schematic drawing. The significance 
of the title is elusive, but when one is dealing with "girls born 
without a mother" the notion ot a unique eunuch does not 
seem farfetched. 



70 The Dancer Jasmine. (Danseuse Jasmine), c.1920 

Pencil, io 3 / 4 x 8'/2" (27.5 x 21.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia" and "Danseuse Jasmine"; 

1.1. "Gnome" and "Gnome"; u.l. "Olympia" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mme. Simone Collinet 

Exhibitions: 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.23 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, 110.9 

Galerie Krugier, Dacia, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

no. 61 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, 110.59 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.30 

Literature: 

Louis Laloy, "L'Antre des Gnomes", Commoedia, July 4, 1920 

Insight into the intimate relationship of Picabia's art and life 
is provided by this drawing - executed in 1920 rather than 
1918 as generally believed. In July 1920, the Olympia 
Theatre in Paris opened a play entitled L'Antre des Gnomes 
with tableaux by Georges Casella and music by Claude 
Debussy - both friends of Picabia. The principal dancer, the 
Danseuse Jasmine, was also a good friend, and her role as an 
evil enchantress had a natural appeal for Picabia. 




71 The Merry Widow. (La Veuve joyeuse). 1921 

Oil, paper and photograph on canvas, 36>/4 x 28 3 /.i" 
(92 x 73 cm.) 

Inscribed u.l. "La Veuve Joyeuse"; 
l.r. "Francis Picabia/1921"; 

c. "Photographic" and "Dessin"; 

photograph signed and dated by Man Ray, "Man Ray 1921" 
Collection Galerie Jean Chauvelin, Paris 

Provenance: 

Private Collection, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Rejected at the Salon des Independants, Paris, January 28- 

February 28, 1922, no. 2883 

Literature: 

Picabia, Letter to editor, New York Herald Tribune, Paris, 

January 19, 1922, p. 3 

Cogniat, Signac interview, Comoedia, Paris, January 21, 1922 

p.2 

Picabia, Letter to Signac, Comoedia, Paris, January 23, 1922, 

P-3 

In The Merry Widow, Picabia's naturally sloppy penmanship 
and taste for impertinence have been raised to a level that 
characterizes the best of his Dada work. The title, as usual, 
poses tormenting questions of intent. Who or what is the 
"merry widow"? - painting (la peinture)?; photography (la 
photographie) ?; the machine (la machine) ? The numerous 
possibilities are as delightful as the liberating, anti-art 
qualities of the work itself. 



LA VEuvE "TO'jEUSE 




(9 z\ 



113 




72 Resonator. (Resonateur). c.1922 

Gouache and ink on composition board, 20>/s x 2i s /g" 
(74 x 55 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Resonateur" 

New York University Art Collection, Gift of Frank J. 
Bradley 

Provenance: 

Frank J. Bradley 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

H. P. Roche, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Galcries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 
December 8, 1922, 110.16 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no. 24 
Rose Fried Gallery, Picabia, New York, February 1950, 110.7 
Rose Fried Gallery, Duchamp ami Picabia, New York, 
December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954, 110.5 

Resonator (a device for giving resonance to sounds) is 
characteristic of Picabia's late machinist style in both its 
austere formal properties and its use of new machine sources. 
Though none of these late machinist works are dated, they 
were first exhibited in 1922 at the Barcelona gallery of 
Picabia's friend Jose Dalmau, and Breton wrote in the 
preface of that exhibition catalogue that the works had been 
painted only a few months earlier. 




73 Volucelle I. c.1922 

Gouache, 23 5 / 8 x 28 3 / 4 " (60 x 73 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Volucelle" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Galerie St. Germaine, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no. 70 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

no. 23 

Hatton Gallery and The Institute of Contemporary Arts, 

Picabia, London, March-April 1964, no. 24 



Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June I, 1964, no. 13 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

no. 66 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-Septembcr 

30, 1966, no. 65 

Museum Morsbroich Lcverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, no. 39 

Dots and small circles are among the most ubiquitous forms 
in Picabia's oeuvre. Occasionally they can be identified 
(symbols of celestial bodies, points of light and energy, 
bullet holes), but more often he kept their significance to 
himself. The asy metrical constellation of colored circles in 
Volucelle I is a particularly mysterious and austere example 
of his preoccupation with this form. 




74 Tickets, c.1922 



Watercolor, 29^4 x 22" (74.5 x 56 cm.) 

Inscribed I.e. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Tickets" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mme. Simone Collinet, Paris 

H. P. Roche, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galeries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 

Deccmber 8, 1922, no. 15 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no. 30 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 1951, no. 8 



Sidney Janis Gallery, Dada, New York, April 15-May 9, 

1953, 110.165 

Gallcria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, 110.4 

Galerie Krugicr, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

110.55 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, no. 54 

Museum Morsbroich Lcvcrkuscn, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, 110.20 

Tickets has long been assigned a date of c.1916-20, but no 
contemporary documents support such attributions. In terms 
of style and signature, it is far more compatible with the 
spare compositions of Picabia's "late machinist" phase, and 
Tickets first appeared at the 1922 Galeries Dalmau exhibition 
where that style was introduced. 




75 Totalizer (Totalisateur). c.1922 



Ink and watercolor, 22 x 291/2" (56 x 75 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Totalisateur" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mine. Simone Collinet, Paris 

H. P. Roche, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galeries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 

December 8, 1922, no. 20 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, 110.31 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, no.7 



Sidney Janis Gallery, Dada, New York, April 15-May 9, 

1953, no.166 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, July 1-30, i960 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, no. 3 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

no. 54 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, no.53 

Museum Morsbroich Levcrkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, 110.19 

A date of c.1922 is offered for Totalizer (a pari-mutuel 
machine) on the same stylistic and historical grounds 
discussed for nos. 72-74. 




76 Conversation I. c.1922 

Watcrcolor, 23 >/ 2 x 28 3 / 8 " (60 x 72 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Conversation" 

Collection The Tate Gallery, London 

Provenance: 

Mine. Simonc Collinet, Paris 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

Dcccmber 4, 1951 (not listed in catalogue) 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 

no. 22 

Musec d'Art et d'Industrie, Art Abstrait, Saint-Eticnnc, 

April-May 1957, no. 50 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, no. 30 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Arts, Picabit 

London, March-April 1964, no. 27 

Literature: 

Hunt, "The Picabia/Breton Axis," Artforum, New York, 
September 1966, pp.18, 20 



77 Optophone I. c. 1922 

Ink and watcrcolor on composition board, 28 3 /s X 23 s /a" 
(72 x 60 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; 1.1. "Optophone" 

Collection Andre Napier, Neuilly, France 

Provenance: 

Mme. Simone Collinet, Paris 

H. P. Roche, Paris 

Mme. Fernand Leger 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galeries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 

December 8, 1922 (reproduced but not listed in catalogue) 

probably Salon des Indipendants, Paris, February 10-March 

11, 1923,110.3733 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, 110.67 

Galerie Leoncc Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 

1930, 110.12 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 18- 

Novcmbcr 16, 1946, 110.14 




Galerie Rene Drouin, 4gi, Paris, March 1949, 110.39 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

no. 22 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.39 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, no. 35 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-December 5, 

1964, 110.15 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 

1966, 110.68 

The Museum of Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 

Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, March 27-June 9, 1968, 

no.269 

Literature: 

Duchamp, Notes for Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, 

March 8, 1926 (n.p.) 

Hunt, "The Picabia/Breton Axis," Artfonmi, September 1966, 

pp.18, 20 

Camfield, "The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia," The Art 

Bulletin, New York, September-December 1966, p. 321 

LeBot, Francis Picabia, Paris, 1968, p. 184 



An optophone is an instrument which converts light varia- 
tions into sound variations so that a blind person may 
estimate varying degrees of light through the ear and 
actually "read" printed matter. Picabia's Optophone seems to 
be a comparable instrument that "converts" electrical 
energy into sexual energy (see p. 35). 




t78 Sphinx, c.1922 



Ink, gouache and watcrcolor, 29>/i x 2\ l \i' (75 x 54.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Sphinx" 

Menil Family Collection 

Provenance: 

Rose Fried Gallery, New York 

Exhibitions: 

Galcries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 

December 8, 1922, 110.28 




*79 Aviation, c.i 922 

Ink and watercolor on board, 29^2 x 21 >/ 4 * (75 x 54 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Aviation" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Bayard Ewing 

Provenance: 

Parke-Bernet, New York 

Mrs. Henry Epstein, New York 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

Mme. Simone Collinet, Paris 

Andre Breton, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galeries Dalmau, Picabia, Barcelona, November 18- 

December 8, 1922, no.4 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 110.20 

Goucher College, The Epstein Collection, Towson, Maryland, 

January 1963 



LA NU IT ESPA&NOLf 



^s&tcqAj^ i>^ I -Ou: l 'xx/vCU 




f8o Spanish Night. (La Nuit espagnole). 1922 
Ripolin on canvas, 63 x 51" (160 x 129.5 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabi.i"; 
u.l. "La Nuit Espagnol"; 
1.1. "Sangre Andaluza" 

Private Collection; New York 

Provenance: 

H. P. Roche, Pans 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Autotnne, Paris, November 1— December 17, 1922, 

110.1895 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March S, 1926, 110.3S 

Galerie Leoncc Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9—31, 

1930, 110.15 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, October 1 S- 

Novcmber 16, 1946, no.i 1 

Galerie Rene Drouin, jqi, Paris, March 1949, 110.29 



Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, 110.9 

Sidney Janis Gallery, Dada, New York, April 15-May 9, 

1953, no. 164 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 110.19 

Exposition Internationale, 50 cms d'art modeme, Brussels 1959, 

no.254 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.37 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-Scptembcr 2, 1962, 110.33 

Sidney Janis Gallery, Two Generations, New York, January 

3-27, 1967 

Literature: 

Vermcersch, "Salon de Peinture," he Kiveil du Nord, Lille, 
November 21, 1922, p.i 

Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, Paris, 1965, pp.370, 521 
Mellow, "New York Letter," Art International, Lugano, 
March 20, 1967, p.59 



Letters to Picabia from Breton and Ribemont-Dcssaigncs 
during August 1922 (Sanouillet, Dada a Paris, Paris, 1965, 
pp.370, 521) indicate that Spanish Night - first referred to as 
"1' Amour espagnol" and "Nuit d'amour" - was completed 
by the end of the summer. When exhibited that fall at the 
Salon d'Automne, it and a companion piece, Fig Leaf, were 
hoisted up into the darkest corner of the Grand Palais. 
Picabia's friend, Pierre de Massot, responded with a vitriolic 
handbill distributed on the steps of the Salon, but by this 
date Picabia's practices were no longer shocking, and several 
hostile critics noted that his audience was less numerous and 
less amused than before. 

The imagery, formal properties and sexual content ot 
Spanish Night (complete with erotic targets and bullet 
holes) has made the painting more interesting for contempo- 
rary viewers, prompting references to Pop Art, hard- 
edge painting, Jasper Johns, Niki de Saint Phallc and others 
(Mellow in Literature above). 



Animal Trainer. (Drcsseur d'animaux). 1923 
Ripolin on canvas, 981/2 x 78 3 //' (250 x 200 cm.) 

Inscriptions l.r. "5 Juillet 1937/Francis Picabia"; 
u.l. "Dresseur D'Animaux" 

Lent by Galerie Cavalero, Cannes 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Salon d'Automne, Paris, November i-December 16, 1923, 

no. 1636 



&:>:: 




Literature: 

Whip, "Au S.ilon d'Automne," Le Canard Enchatne', Paris, 

November 7, 1923. p. 4 

Notice. Arlequin, Paris, December 1, 1923 (attrib.) 

The false date and presumptuous size of Animal Trainer still 
smack of Dada, but the provocative contrast of abstract and 
figurative elements in Picabia's work of 1922 have given way 
to a figurative style. The long nose of the animal trainer 
soon became a prominent feature in many paintings of the 
"monster" period (c. 1923-28), while the academic nude form 
was revived during the period ot the transparencies (c.1928- 
32). 



82 Plumes, c.1923-1927? 

Ripolin, feathers, macaroni, cane and corn plasters on canvas, 
361/a x 27'// (91.8 x 69.8 cm.); in a dowelled frame, 

46 7 / 8 x 30 7 / 8 " (119 x 78.5 cm.) 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Galerie Fischer, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, no. 32 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-Septcmber 2, 1962, 110.31 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, no. 12 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

110.67 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, no. 66 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

110.209 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, 110.40 

Galleria Civica, Lc Muse Inquielanli, Turin, November 1967- 

January 196S 

Plumes, like many of Picabia's so-called "Dada" collages, has 
an unconventional frame. The earliest document regarding 
these frames occured with the exhibition ot Lamp (Lampe, 
c. 1923, Private Collection, London) at the 1924 Salon des 
Independants. The book binder, Pierre Lcgrain, was named 
as the designer of those frames (Charensol, "Au Salon des 
Independants, Dccouvertes," Paris-Journal, February 15, 1924, 
p. 4), and numerous documents attest to his collaboration 
with Picabia from then until 1927. The wooden rods in the 
frame of Pinnies seem related to the glass tubes around 
Lamp, and the macaroni and feathers in Plumes appear in 
only one other extant work, Midi (Yale University Art 
Gallery, Gift of the Collection Societe Anonyme). Though 
Midi is undated, its mottled snakeskin frame by Legrain 
suggests a post-1923 date, and it may have appeared publicly 
for the first time in 1928 at Stieglitz's Intimate Gallery for an 
exhibition described in the catalogue as "the most recent 
works of Francis Picabia" (110.8 as "Cadre Mouchete"). 




83 Reading. (La Lecture), c.1924-1925 

Ripolin and drinking straws on canvas, 3 i 7 /s x 26" (81 x 66 
cm.) 

Signed 1.1. "Francis Picabia" 

Collection Prince Igor Troubetzkoy, Paris 

Provenance: 

Galerie Furstenberg, Paris 

Tristan Tzara, Paris 

M. Pierre, Paris 

Marcel Duchamp 

the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Hotel Drouot, Duchamp Sale, Paris, March 8, 1926, no.72 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, no. 24 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, no.27 

Reading, securely dated 1924-25, documents the co- 
existence of Picabia's so-called "monster" paintings and 
"Dada" collages. In this instance, a prosaic subject is trans- 
formed and almost concealed by Picabia's use of distorted, 
patterned forms, collage elements and the saturated colors of 
a succulent ripolin paint. 





Tooth Picks. (Cure-dents), c.1924-1925 

Oil, cord, string, sticks, and quill tooth picks on canvas, 
31 '/: x 17 3 //' (80 x 45 cm.); 

in metal frame with buttons, 36 '/-i x 28 3 / 4 " (92 x 73 cm.) 
Signed l.r. "Francis Picabia" 
Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 
Provenance: 
Galerie Fischer, Paris 
Jacques Doucct, Paris 
Exhibitions: 

Galleries Durand-Ruel, Tri-National Exhibition, Paris, May- 
June 1925 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 401, Paris, March 1949, 110.25 
Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 
December 4, 195 1 (not listed in catalogue) 
Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, no. 11 
Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 
110.65 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 
30, 1966, 110.64 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October S-November 17, 1966, 
110.206 



Museum Morsbroich Levcrkuscn, Picabia, February 7- 
April 2, 1967, 110.37 

Kunstvercin, Collagen, Frankfurt, April -May 1968, no.66 
Galleria Civica, Lc Muse Inquietanti, Turin, November 1967- 
January 1968, no.78 

Literature: 

De Meurvillc, "Unc Exposition Tri-nationale," Gaulois, 

Paris, May 31, 1925 

The Arts, "Paris Postscripts," New York, July 1925, pp.5 1-4 

and August 1925, p. 109 

LeBot, Picabia, Paris, 196S, pp. 182-3 

Tooth Picks was first exhibited in 1925 and Picabia's corres- 
pondence at that time with Pierre de Massot, Marius de 
Zayas and Jacques Doucct (owner of the painting) clearly 
indicates it was one of his most recent paintings (Biblio- 
theque Litterairc Jacques Doucet, Picabia Scrapbook, vol.12; 
pp.22-3 and vol.6, pp. 179-80). Internal evidence supports 
these documents, for the combination of jaunty collage 
elements, rich painterly qualities and a Legrain frame is 
entirely consistent with securely dated collages and "monsters" 
of this period in the mid-i920s. 




85 Centimeters. (Les Centimetres), c.1924-1925 

Oil, centimeter tape, paper matches and matchbox covers on 

canvas, 22 x i5 3 /»" (5*> x 39 cm 

Signed l.r. "Francis Picabia" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mme. Olga Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, 110.26 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, July 1-30, i960 

The Museum of Modern Art, The Art of Assemblage, Seitz, 

ed., New York, October 2-November 12, 1961, no. 164 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964, no. 10 

Galerie Krugier, Dada, Geneva, February 17-March 30, 1966, 

no. 62 

Civico Padiglione, Dada in Italia, Milan, June 24-September 

30, 1966, no. 60 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October 8-November 17, 1966, 

no. 202 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7-April 

2, 1967, 110.29 



The Museum ot Modern Art, Dada, Surrealism and Their 
Heritage, Rubin, ed., New York, March 27-Junc 9, 1968, 
no. 264 

Literature: 

LeBot, Picabia, Paris, 1968, pp. 182-3 

Neither the date nor the title of Centimeters is documented. 
Though habitually attributed to 1918 or 1920, its formal 
properties - collage elements combined with a painterly 
application of oil pigments - are most compatible with such 
works as Tooth Picks (no. 84). And, as noted in the text 
(p. 36), eleven centimeters of tape missing from this collage 
seem to have been used for a nose in Portrait (tig. 19), another 
Dada-like collage securely attributable to c.1925. 
The broken centimeter tape calls to mind Duchamp's Three 
Standard Stoppages, but Picabia has arranged it so that, in 
conjunction with paint and matches (sticks which make fire), 
it suggests a tree or a firey eruption. To the confusion 
(deliberate?) of any such simple reading of the composition, 
Picabia has scratched radiating "suns" in the white field at 
the bottom of the painting. 




86 Woman with Monocle. (La Femme au 
monocle), c.1924-1926 

Oil on board, 41 1 /; x 29 1 /:" (105.5 x 75 cm.) 

Signed 1.1. "Francis Picabia" 

Collection Simonc Collinct, Paris 

Provenance: 

Andre Breton, Paris 

Mine. Gabricllc Buffet-Pi cabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picahia, Paris, November 20- 

December 4, 195 1, no. 4 

Galerie Furstenbcrg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 110.29 

Kunsthallc Diisscldorf, Dada, September 5-October 19, 1958, 

110.203 



Matthicscn Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, 110.33 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

110.24 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.44 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Arts, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, 110.30 

Galerie Furstenbcrg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-December 5, 

1964, 110.17 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Dada, October S-November 17, 1966, 

no.216 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, 110.42 

Literature: 

Jean, Tlie History of Surrealist Painting, London, i960, pp. 144- 

45- 




87 Sibyl. (Previously referred to as Faun). 
c.1924-1927 

Gouache, 41 x 26 3 /s" (104 x 67 cm.) 
Signed 1.1. "Francis Picabia" 
Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 
Provenance: 
Paolo Marinotti 
Exhibitions: 

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Signale-Manifeste-Proteste, Reckling- 
hausen, June-July 1965, no. 70 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 
April 2, 1967, no. 47 



The figure in this painting should probably be identified as a 
sibyl instead of a faun. Other paintings of the same theme 
and date are clearly based on sibyls and ignudi in Miche- 
langelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco (see Fantastic Nude, 
Collection Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris, and Four- 
footed Person, formerly Collection Simone Collinet, Paris). 
The Schwarz Gallery Sibyl looks like a composite of several 
figures instead of an adaptation of one model from 
Michelangelo, however, the book in the upper left indicates 
a sibyl. 




88 Idyll. (Idyllc). c.1924-1927 

Gouache on board, 29'/: x 41 '//' (75 x 105.4 cm.) 

Not signed or dated 

Collection Simone Collinet, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mine. Gabrielle Butfet-Picabia, Paris 

Andre Breton, Paris 



Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, 1949, 110.46 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan, Picabia, Paris, November 20- 

Decembcr 4, 195 1, no. 20 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956, 110.35 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November, 

1959, 110.41 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

110.28 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Arts, Picabia, 

London, March-April 1964, 110.32 

Galerie Furstenberg, Picabia, Paris, November 4-Deccmbcr 

5, 1964, 110.18 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, 110.43 

This traditional theme of seated and reclining figures 
suggests the possibility of a specific (though undiscovered) 
source in past art - perhaps even a pietii scene at odds with 
the title now accorded this painting. 




Idyll. (Idylle). c.1924-1927 

Oil on wood, 41 >/ 2 x 29 1 // (105.4 x 75 cm -) 

Signed 1.1. "Francis Picabia" 

Collection Musee de Peinture et de Sculpture, Grenoble 

Provenance: 

Jacques Doucet, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Kunsthaus Zurich, 1946 



Upon moving to the Midi in 1925, Picabia exchanged the 
polemics and projects of his life in Paris for an idyllic life 
devoted to painting, puttering around a sprawling chateau 
of his design, and playing at the beach, night clubs and 
casinos of Cannes. In spontaneous celebration of this life, he 
turned to the theme of amorous couples, painting dozens of 
them from about 1924-28 in many varieties of the "monster" 
style. Idyll is a sentimental post-card composition of young 
lovers which Picabia has modified to his own ends. Double 
lines within the man's head are stylized signs of movement, 
while the multiple eyes, noses and mouths of his sweetheart 
seem to be simple - and frustrating - devices to achieve 
effects of simultaneity and coyness. Picabia has also employed 
a technique of partial transparency to underscore the male- 
female theme, associating woman with the sea and man with 
mountains, towers and buildings. This technique of trans- 
parency further recommends a relatively late date for Idyll - 
perhaps c.1927 - and prepares one for Picabia's next major 
period of the "Transparencies." 




90 Toreador. 0.1927-1928 

Watcrcolor, 29 1 /: x 21 '/:" (75 x 55 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Toreador" 

Private collection, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mme. Allendy, Paris 



Picabia's numerous paintings of toreadors preclude positive 
identification of this work in early exhibitions, but the style 
indicates a date of c.1927-28, on the watershed between the 
periods ot the "monsters" and the "transparencies." The 
Romanesque-inspired horned beast is typical of the last phase 
of the "monsters," while multiple layers of transparent forms 
are characteristic of the "transparencies." 
Like many paintings of this phase, Toreador is an awkward 
work, apparently lacking both visual and thematic unity. 
Content, however, was foremost in Picabia's mind, and 
Toreador provides a personal memento of his experience of 
Spain - beautiful women (pious and otherwise), the Church, 
toreadors and bullfighting. The interrelationship of these 
subjects is underscored by the horned beast - simultaneously 
associated with the toreador and with the Church as one of 
the four living beasts, the ox symbol of St. Luke. Picabia's 
concerns also justify viewing Toreador in terms of such 
broader themes as man and woman, man and beast, 
Christianity and paganism, life and death. 



91 The Shadow. (L'Ombre). c.1927-1928 

Gouache and cellophane on board, 41 l ji x i^'j/' (105.5 x 75 
cm.) 

Signed I.r. "Francis Picabia" 

Collection: Pedro Vallenilla Echeverria, Caracas 

Provenance: 

Galerie d'Elysee, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Th. Briant, Picabia, Paris, October 26-November 15, 

1928, 110.3 

Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Picabia, Paris, December 9-31, 

1930, no.25 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.50 

Literature: 

Jean, The History of Surrealism, London, i960, p. 144 

Blue cellophane used for the butterfly and the shadow of the 
cowering man provides a direct means of transparency, and 
recalls Picabia's works of the early 1920s like (Spanish Night, 
no. 80) which manipulate simplified, classicistic figures for 
psychological and formal contrasts. 





92 Luscunia. c.1929 

Oil on canvas, 57 7 /s x 54>/ 4 " (147 x 138 cm.) 

Inscribed I.e. "Francis Picabia"; u.r. "Luscunia" 

Lent by Galeric Henri Benezit, Paris 

Provenance: 

Leonce Rosenberg, Paris 



134 




93 Manucode. c.1929 

Oil on canvas, 39 3 / 8 x 31V4" (100 x 81 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Manucode" 

Collection Patrick Bailly-Cowell, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mine. Bailly-Cowell 

the artist 



Exhibitions: 

Galerie Colette Allendy, Picabia, Paris, May 30-June 23, 1947 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, 110.52 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Picabia, Paris, November-December 1961, 

110.38 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.51 

Manucode (a bird of paradise) is dominated by a bird, a 
Botticelli-inspired head and a creamy heart-shaped form. 
It was given by Picabia to his daughter Jeanine for her six- 
teenth birthday. 




94 Acllo. c.1930 

Oil on canvas, 66'/: x 66<li" (169 x 169 cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia"; u.l. "Acllo" 

Collection Robert Lcbcl, Paris 

Provenance: 

Lconce Rosenberg, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galeric Alexandre III, Picabia, Cannes, August 1930 (not 

listed in the catalogue) 

Museum voor schone Kunsten, Figuratie Defiguratie, Gent, 

1964, 110.216 



If there does not appear to be a relationship between Aello 
and the Harpy of the same name, it may be attributed to 
Picabia's visual source - two of the angels in Piero della 
Francesca's Baptism of Christ. Whether or not Picabia 
intended a comparison of Christian angels with the harpies 
(filthy, ravenous bird-women that carried away the souls ot 
the dead) is unknown, but many of his transparencies do play 
on the reversal of Christian and pagan forms and content. 



136 



t95 Portrait, c. 193 8-1939 

Oil on board, 241/2 x 20 l j t " (62.2 x 52.7 cm.) 

Signed l.r. "Picabia" 

Collection Mme. Romain, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

110.60 

While experimenting with abstraction again during 1937-39, 
Picabia produced a handful of distinctive paintings that 
combine hard-edge, abstract color planes with preoccupations 
of older vintage - transparency, superimposition and sultry 
female visages. 





*g6 Abstract Composition. 1937 

Gouache, 11 '/: x i5 3 /»" ( 2 9 x 39 cm.) 

Signed and dated l.r. "Francis Picabia 1937" 

Collection Dr. Max H. Welti, Zurich 

Provenance: 

Unknown 

Exhibitions: 

Kunsthalle Bern, Picabia, July 7-September 2, 1962, 110.37 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Exposition "Spectrum tier Parbe," March 9- 

April 23, 1967 

t97 7091.C.1938-1939 

Oil on board, 23'/* x io'// (59.8 x 49 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; u.r. "7091" 

Collection Mine. Romain, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Musee Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no. 61 

Picabia's brightly-colored, abstract interlace paintings were 
hardly novel in French art of the 1930s and probably reflect 
renewed contact with major abstract artists in Paris whom he 
joined in signing the 1937 Manifesto of Dimensionism (see 
f.n.85). Nevertheless, they are engaging compositions - 
particularly fresh alongside his heavy, figurative paintings of 
the late 1930s - and it is regrettable that most of them were 
lost during the Second World War. 




Tl <X *> C i 5 P 



138 




98 The Sun in Painting. (Le Soleil dans la 
peinture). 1945 

Oil on composition board, i7'/2 x H'/s" (44-5 x 36.5 cm.) 

Signed 1.1. "Francis Picabia"; reverse (probably not in 
Picabia's hand) "Lc soleil dans la peinture 1945" 

OerYentliche Kunstsammlung, Kunstmuseum Basel, Gift of 
Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach. 1968 

Provenance: 
Jean (Hans) Arp 
Exhibitions: 

Kunstmuseum Basel, Sammlung Marguerite Arp-Hagenbach, 
November 4, 1967-January 7, 1968, no. 242 




99 The Dove of Peace. (La Paloma de la Paz). 1946 

Oil on wood, 33 '/s x 26-'/ 4 " (84 x 68 cm.) 

Signed and dated 1.1. "Francis Picabia 1946" 

Collection Jacques Tronche, Paris 

Provenance: 

Mine. Olga Picabia, Paris 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 491, Paris, March 1949, no. S3 




ioo Kalinga. c.1946 

Oil on wood, 58 s / 8 x 37 3 /s" (149 x 95 cm.) 

Inscribed 1.1. "Picabia"; l.r. "Kalinga" 

Collection Succession Picabia, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Salon dcs Suriudependants, Paris, October 1946 

Galerie Rene Drouin, 401, Paris, March 1949, no.in 




ioi Bal Negre. 1947 

Oil on wood, 59 3 /j x 43 1 //' (152 x no cm.) 

Inscribed l.r. "Francis Picabia 1947"; 
u.c. "Bal Negre" 

Collection Succession Picabia, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galerie Apollo, Picabia, Brussels, October 18-November 3, 

1950, no. 10 

Musec Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.63 

Literature: 

Sanouillet, Picabia, Paris, 1964, pp. 59-60 



The "Bal Negre" had no organized floor show and master of 
ceremonies, but a fascinating clientele, the best of popular 
music and lively amateur dancing made it Picabia's favorite 
night club. Jacques Prevert, Simonc dc Beauvoir, Georges 
Auric and many of the Surrealists gathered there (Sanouillet, 
see Literature above), though Picabia's habitual companions 
were his wife, Jean Van Heeckeren, Jacques-Henri Levesque, 
Michel Perrin, the Goetzes and others. 




102 Aroma, c.1947 

Oil on board, 33 >/? x 27'// (85 x 70 cm.) 

Inscribed bottom "Picabia"; 1.1. "Aroma" 

Lent by Schwarz Gallery, Milan 

Provenance: 

Mme. Olga Picabia 

Exhibitions: 

Salon des Realites Nouvelles, Paris, 1947 

Matthiesen Gallery, Picabia, London, October-November 

1959, no. 53 

Galleria Schwarz, Picabia, Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964 (not 

in catalogue) 

Museum Morsbroich Leverkusen, Picabia, February 7- 

April 2, 1967, no.73 




103 Danger of Force. (Danger de la Force). 
1947-1950 

Oil on composition board, 45^4 x 34 5 /»" (115 x 88 cm.) 

Signed and dated l.r. "Francis Picabia 1947-50" 

Collection Succession Picabia, Paris 

Provenance: 

The artist 

Exhibitions: 

Galcric Apollo, Picabia, Brussels, October 18-November 3, 

1950, no. 1 1 

Muscc Cantini, Picabia, Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962, 

no.67 



144 



Documents 

Letters 

104 10 Letters 
1946-195 1 

11x8" each 

Henri Goetz and Christine Boumeester, Paris 

Magazines 

j-105 291, #4 
1915 

1 8 1/2 x i2'/ 2 " 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art Library. 
Gift of Alfred Stieglitz, 1916 

fl06 291, # 5-6 
1915 

i7'/ 4 x 1 1 1/4' 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art Library. 
Gift of Alfred Stieglitz, 1916 

fi07 Dada 4-5 (Anthologie Dada) 
1919 

11 x 171/2" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leonard M. Brown, Springfield, 
Massachusetts 

f 108-aDadaphone (DADA # 7) 
March 1920 

101/2x71/2" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leonard M. Brown, Springfield, 
Massachusetts 

108-bDadaphone (DADA # 7) 
March 1920 

101/2x71/2" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

109 Cannibale, # 1 
1920 

9'/2 x61 /4" 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New 
York 

no Cannibale, #2 
1920 



Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New 
York 



fill 391, # 12 
1920 

C.211/2X 141/2" 



Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leonard M. Brown, Springfield, 
Massachusetts 



flI2 391, # 14 
1920 

C.23 '/4 x 121/2 



Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leonard M. Brown, Springfield, 
Massachusetts 



Poems 

113 Cinquante-deux Mirrors 
1917 

9 1 /* x 91/2" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

114 L' Athlete des Pompes Funebrcs 
1918 

9'h~ x 6" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

f 115 draft from L'Athlete des Pompes Funebrcs 
1918 (unpublished) 

c.i 1 x 81/2" each 

Pierre Andre Benoit, Ales, France 

116 L'llot dc Beau Sejour dans... 
191 8 

7 x 4 V/ 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

1 17 Poemes et Dessins de la Fille nee sans Merc 
1918, April 

91/2x61// 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

118 Ratehiers Platoniques 
1918 

81/4x8'// 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

1 19 Pensees sans Langage 
1919 

7 3 A x 5" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 



120 Poesie Ron-Ron 
1919 

71/4x45/4" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

I2i Jesus-Christ Rastaquouerc 
1920 

9 x 6'/ 2 " 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

123 Unique Eunuquc 
1920 

7 ! /4X5'/4" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 

124 Chi-Lo-Sa 
1950 

12'/: X 10" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

"[125 draft of Lc Moindrc Effort 

1950 (unpublished) 

Pierre Andre Bcnoit, Ales, France 

126 Le Moindre Effort 
1950 

3'/:x6" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

127 Pour et Contrc 
1950 

5'/«x3'/.' 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

128 Lc Saint Masque 

195 1 

5 x 5" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

129 591 
I9S2 

II x S'/j" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

130 Fleur Montrcc 
1952 

6>/4 x 43// 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 



1 3 1 Nc Sommcs Nous Trahis Par. . . 

1953 

63/ 4 x 4 1 // 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

132 Domain Dimanchc 
'954 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

133 Poemes dc Dingalari 

1955 

8*/.xs'/i* 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

134 Laissez Debordcr le Hasard 
1962 

1 1 'Ax 9" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

"("135 poem Verite and drawing 
(unpublished) 

c.i 1 x8'/ 2 " 

Pierre Andre Benoit, Ales, France 

Miscellaneous 

"[136 Funny Guy 
1921 

Handbill 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leonard M. Brown, Springfield, 
Massachusetts 

137 Program for Rclachc 
1924 

14 x 10" 

Collection Olga Picabia, Paris 

138 La Lai D' Accomodations chez les Borgnes 
1928 

Scenario tor film 

11 x 9" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Cohen, New York 



139 Picabia by Edouard Andre 
1908 

10 x 81/4" 

Lent by Weyhc Gallery, New York 



146 



Chronology 



1879 Born on or about January 22 in Paris to Francisco Vicen- 
te Martinez Picabia and Marie Cecile Davanne. 

1886 Mother died. Picabia raised in an affluent household by 
his father, uncle, grandfather and servants. 

1888- Rebellious student at the College Stanislas and the Lycee 
1895 Monge, but won prize for drawing. Father remarried in 
1889. 

1895 Entered the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs . 

1899 Began to exhibit at the conservative Salon des Artistes 
Francais. Resumed art studies under Ferdinand Hum- 
bert, Charles Wallet and Fernand Cormon. 

1902 Met Georges and Rodo (Manzana) Pissarro who intro- 
duced him to their father. Picabia's first Impressionist 
paintings done in the winter 1902-03. 

1903 Began to exhibit Impressionist paintings at the Salon 
d'Automne and Salon des Independants. 

1905 First one-man exhibition at the fashionable Galerie 
Haussmann. 

1905- Picabia became a well-known Impressionist, but his 
1908 aesthetic concerns were based on late 19th-century con- 
cepts of "correspondance." 

1908 Met a music student, Gabrielle Buffet, who shared his 
interest in the theory of correspondance. Picabia began to 
paint in the manner of Neo-Impressionism and Fauvism. 

1909 Married Gabrielle Buffet. Four children born to them 
from 1910-19. 

1909- Picabia sought a personal expression in manners related 

191 1 to Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art. Associated with 
the Societe Normande de Pcinture Moderne and with 
many avant-garde artists in Paris. Friendship with Du- 
champ. 

1912 Developed a personal (an increasingly abstract) blend of 
Cubism and Fauvism motivated by a desire to express 
internal states of the mind or emotions. Friendship with 
Apollinaire and an influential role in both Orphism and 
La Section d'Or. First totally abstract work. 

191 3 Visited New York for the Armory Show and became 
the spokesman for "extremist" art. Stimulating friend- 
ship with Alfred Stieglitz and Marius de Zayas. One-man 
exhibition at "291." 

1913- Masterpieces of abstract "psychological" studies as Pica- 

1914 bia called them - Udnie, Edtaonisl, I Sec Again in Memory 
My Dear Udnie and others. Drafted after declaration of 
war in August. 

191 5 Sent on an army supply mission to the Caribbean. Aban- 
doned mission to join the activities around "291" and 
Duchamp in New York. Beginning of the machinist or 
mechanomorphic period. 

late Poorly documented period of voyages with Gabrielle 
1915- between New York, the Caribbean and Barcelona. Spells 

1916 of neurasthenia. First serious efforts to write poetry. 
Settled in Barcelona. Fall 1916. 

1917 Began publication of jgi in January. Went to New York 
in April. Returned to Barcelona in September. Published 
first volume of poetry, Cinqiiante-detix miroirs. Went to 
Paris in November. Met Germaine Everling. 



ly i S Sought rest in S\\ itzerland from the chaos of his perso- 
nal affairs. Painted little but published several volumes 
of poetry. Tzara wrote Picabia in August. 

1919 Picabia and Gabrielle stayed two weeks with the Da- 
daists in Zurich. Returned to Paris in March. Contact 
with Duchamp and Ribemont-Dessaignes. Began to 
live with Germanic Evcrling. Created a Dada-like scan- 
dal at the Salon d'Automnc with his paintings and _jpi. 

1920 Tzara, Breton, Picabia and associates unite in January to 
open a Dada season in Paris. Proliferation of spectacles, 
exhibitions, books, magazines and articles. Picabia's 
new journal, Cannibale, and the first exhibition of his 
works most central to Dada - The Double World, The 
Blessed I 'irgin and Portrait of Cezanne - Rembrandt - 
Renoir. 

Conflicts among the Dadaists. Picabia - Breton fission 
in August. 

1 92 1 Picabia and Breton resume contact, but in May, Picabia 
severed relationships with both Breton and Tzara, and 
denounced Dada. Tit-for-tat polemical publications. 
Picabia began steady contributions to Parisian newspa- 
pers. Scandal created at Salon d'Automne by Picabia's 
Cacodylic Eye and Hot Eyes. 

1922 Salon des Indcpendants a climax for Picabia's Dada art. 
Sarcastic support of Breton's Congress of Paris. Galerie 
Dalmau exhibition (Barcelona, November) introduced 
"late machinist" style and resumption of figurative art. 
Moved to suburban Trcmblay-sur-Mauldre, reducing 
activity in Paris. 

1923- Beginning of documents on the so-called "Dada colla- 
1924 ges" and the "Monster" style. 

1924 Attacked Breton and Surrealism in new issues of 591. 
Offered an antidote (Instantaneism) in the film Entr'acte 
(Rene Clair collaboration) and the ballet Reidche pro- 
duced by the Swedish Ballet. Cinesketch, December 24. 

1925 Built Chateau de Mai in Mougins and began idyllic life 
in the Midi. Olga Mohler hired as a governess for Pica- 
bia's son by Germainc. 



1926 Duchamp sale at the Hotel Drouot of So works by Pica- 
bia. Picabia gradually became a celebrity in Cannes and 
a legend in Paris. Chateau de Mai a popular stop for old 
friends from Paris. "Monsters' 1 and Spanish subjects 
dominated his work. 

1928 Exhibition at Galerie Theophile Briant (Paris, October) 
marked end of the "Monsters" and beginning of the 
"Transparencies." 

1930 Leonce Rosenberg became Picabia's chief dealer. 

1930- Transparencies evolved toward simplified naturalism. 

1933 Olga Mohler became Picabia's companion. Accelerated 
purchase of automobiles and yachts. Life in the Chateau 
de Mai abandoned for yachts and frequent trips to Paris. 
Friendship with Gertrude Stein. Legion of Honor, 1933. 

1935- Variety of styles: simplified naturalistic figures, superim- 
1939 positions, landscapes reminiscent of Impressionist and 
Fauve paintings of c. 1907-09. Essays in abstract art, 
1937-39- Leisurely life on yacht in Golfe Juan and fre- 
quent trips to Paris. 

1940- Married Olga in 1940. Residence shifted around the 
1945 Midi during the war. Style of living much reduced. 
Friendship with the Goetzs and the Romains. Painting 
dominated by heavy-handed realism. Picabia's indiffer- 
ence to nationalist, patriotic concerns offended both 
the French and Germans. 

1945 Returned to Paris and settled in the old family home. 
Resumption of abstract painting and poetry. 

1947- Exhibitions, interviews, articles and publications of 
1949 poetry reached a climax with the large retrospective ex- 
hibition in March 1949 at the Galerie Rene Drouin. 

1949 Abstract paintings of dots ("les points") on color fields. 
Pierre Andre Bcnoit (PAB) began publication of Pica- 
bia's poems. 

1951- Old age and illness precluded further work. Died 
1953 November 30, 1953. 



148 



Bibliography 



This bibliography contains all references cited in the catalogue 
and a selection of other sources relevant to the study of Picabia. 
Like previous Picabia bibliographies, it relies extensively on the 
Dossiers Picabia (Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques Doucet, Paris) - 
thirteen scrapbooks of clippings, letters, photographs and 
drawings collected by Picabia from c. 1904-1927. However, 
dates attributed to clippings in these scrapbooks are not reliable, 
and in any instance where this author has not verified a source 
given in them, it is attributed to the Dossier Picabia (abbr. D.P.). 



I. By Picabia 

A. Writings 

"Preface." Picabia Exhibition at the Little Gallery of the 
Photo-Secession [291]. New York, March 17-April 5, 1913. 
For other prefaces, poems and statements by Picabia in ex- 
hibition catalogues, see exhibition list. 

"Que fais tu 291 ?" Camera Work. New York, no.47, July 
1914, p.72. 

Statement. 291. New York, no. 12, February 1916, n.p. 

"Medusa." The Blind Man. New York, 110.2, May 1917. 

"Plafonds creux," and "Une nuit Chinoise a New York." 
Rongwrong. New York, 1917. 

Cinquante-deux miroirs: 1914-1917. Barcelona, O. de Vila- 
nova, October 1917. 

Poetnes et Dessins de la Jille nee sans mere. Lausanne, Impri- 
meries Reunies, S.A., 1918. 

L'llot de bean sejonr dans le canton de nndite. Lausanne, June 23, 
1918. 

L'Athlete des pompes junebres. Begnins, November 24, 1918. 

Rateliers platoniqncs. Lausanne, December 15, 1918. 

"Salive americaine," "G. Apollinaire." Dada. Zurich, 110.3, 
December 191S. 

"Etang m'a emporte au Chili...", "Soleil sage-femme." 
Dada. Zurich, no. 4-5, 1919. 

Poesie ron-ron. Lausanne, February 24, 1919. 

Pensees sans langagc. Paris, Eugene Figuiere, April 1919. 
Preface by Udnie. 

Unique Eumique. Paris, Au Sans Pareil, February 20, 1920. 
Preface by Tristan Tzara. 

"Papa fais-moi peur." Litteratnre. Paris, no. 12, February 
1920, p.2. 

"Le Rat circulaire." Proverbe. Paris, 110.1, February 1920. 

"Poeme," "Un peu tordu" and extract from Pensees sans 
langage. Die Schammade, Cologne, February 1920. 

"Manifeste cannibale Dada" and aphorisms. Dada. Paris, 
110.7 [Dadaphone], March 1920. 

"A voix basse: Pensez-vous a l'honnetete?" Proverbe. Paris, 
no. 2, March 1920. 

"Dada philosophe." Litteratnre. Paris, no. 13, May 1920, 
pp. 5-6; "L'Art," pp. 12-13. 

"La Jeune fille," "Bracelet de la vie," "Machine de bons 
mots." Proverbe. Paris, 110.4, May 1920. 



"Le ler Mai." Littiraturt. Paris, 110.14, June 1920, pp. 26-28. 

Jisus-Christ Rastaquouere. Paris, Au Sans Pareil, 1920. Intro- 
duction by Gabrielle Burfct-Picabia; drawings by Georges 
Ribemont-I )essaignes. 

"A Madame Rachilde," "Manifeste cannibale Dada", "Ich 
stamme von javanern." Dada Almanack. Berlin, 1920. 

"Manifeste cannibale Dada," "A voix basse: Pcnsez-vous a 
rhonnctetcV aphorisms. Der Dada. Berlin, 110.3, 1920. 

"Ninie." La I 'it ties Lettrts. Paris, April 1921. 

"Zona." La I 'it des Lettrts. Paris, July 1921. 

"M. Picabia sc separe des Dadas." Comotiia. Paris, May 11, 
192 1, p. 2. 

"Francis Picabia et Dada." L'Esprit Nouveau. Paris, N0.9, 
June 1921, pp. 1059-60. 

"Pourquoi nous avons le Cafard." Comotdia. Paris, June 23, 

1921 [attrib. D.P. VII, p.99]. 

"Almanack." The New York Herald. Paris, July 12, 1921 
[attrib. D.P. VII, p.129]. 

"Lutte contre le tuberculose." Comotdia. Paris, August 3, 

1921, p. 1. 

"Fumigations." Tht Little Review. London and New York, 
Autumn 1921, pp. 12-14. 

"Bonheur moral et bonheur physique." Ca Ira. Antwerp, 
110.16, November 1921, pp.98-101. 

"L'Oeil Cacodylate." Comotdia. Paris, November 23, 1921, 
p. 2. 

"Marihuana." Comotdia. Paris, December 21, 1921, p.i. 

"Trompettes de Jericho." Comotdia. Paris, January 19, 1922, 
p. 1. 

Letter to the editor. Tht New York Herald Tribune. Paris, 
January 19, 1922, p. 3. 

Open letter to Paul Signac. Comotdia. Paris, January 23, 

1922, p. 3. 

"Les Arts." Les Potins de Paris. Paris, February 10, 1922 
[attrib. D.P. VIII, p.166]. 

"Jazz-Band." Comotdia. Paris, February 24, 1922, p.i. 

"Sur les Bords de la Scene." Les Potins de Paris. Paris, c. 
February-March, 1922 [attrib. D.P. VIII, p. 120]. 

"Indifference immobile." Comotdia. Paris, March 31, 1922, 
p.i. 

"Jusqu'a un certain point..." Comoedia. Paris, April 16, 1922, 
p.i. 

"Orguc de Barbaric." The Little Review. London, Spring 
1922, pp. 3-4; "Anticoq," pp. 42-44. 

"Cinema." Cinea. Paris, c. May 1922 [attrib. D.P. VIII, 
p.236]. 

"Le Genie et le Fox-Tcrricr." Comoedia. Paris, May 16, 1922, 
p.i. 

"Ondulations cerebrales." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Paris, July 12, 
1922, pp. 1-2. 

"Jardin d'acclimations." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Paris, August 5, 

1922 [attrib. D.P. VIII, p.297]. 



"La bonne peinture." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Paris, August 20, 1922, 
pp. 1-2. 

"Souvenirs sur Leninc. Le Communismc jugc par un peintre 
cubiste." L'Eclair. Paris, August 23, 1922, p.i. 

"Le Salon des Independents." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Paris, Sep- 
tember 20, 1922, pp. 1-2. 

"Litterature." Literature. Paris, 2111c serie, 110.4, September 

1922, p. 6; "Pensees et souvenirs," p.13; "Picabia dit dans 
Litterature," pp. 17-18. 

"Ma main tremble." The Little Review. New York and 
London, Autumn 1922, p.40; "Good Painting," pp. 61-62. 

"Un efiet facile." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, 110.5, October 
1, 1922, pp. 1-2; "Billets de Faveur," pp.u-12. 

"Classiquc et mcrveilleux." L'Ere Nottvelle. Paris, October 
23, 1922, pp. 1-2. 

"Histoire de voir." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, no.6, Novem- 
ber 1, 1922, p. 17; "Condoleances," p. 19; "Pithecomorph.es," 
p. 20; "Samedi soir," p. 24. 

"Dactylocoquc." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, 110.7, Decem- 
ber 1, 1922, pp.io-n. 

"Souvenirs de Voyage." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, no.8, 
January 1, 1923, pp. 3-4; Statement, p. 9; "Avis," p.13; 
"Francis Merci," pp. 16-17. 

"Academisme." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, 110.9, February 
1 and March 1, 1923, p. 5; "Etat d'Amc," p.13; "Elcctrargol," 
pp. 14-15. 

Response to a survey on "Le Symbolisme, a-t-il dit son 
dernier mot?" Le Disque Vert. Paris, nos.4-6, February, 
March-April 1923, p. 91. 

"Le Salon des Independants." La I 7c Moderne. Paris, Febru- 
ary 1 1, 1923 [attrib. D.P. IX, p. 74]. 

"Jesus dit a ces juifs." La I'ie Moderne. Paris, February 25, 
1923 [attrib. D.P. IX, p.101]. 

"Le petit jcu dangereux." La Vie Moderne. Paris, March 18, 
1923 [attrib. D.P. XII, pp.94-95]. 

"Georges de Zayas." L'Eclw dit Mexique. March 1923, pp. 8-9 
[attrib. D.P. IX, pp. 96-97]. 

"Vues de dos." Paris-Journal. Paris, April 6, 1923, p.i. 

"Le Signe du Roi." Litterature. Paris, 2111c serie, 110.10, May 1, 

1923, p. 16; Aphorisms, p.13. 

"Causes et effcts." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Paris, June 14, 1923, pp.i- 



"Bonheur Nouveau." "Colin-Maillard," "Irreceptif," "Eru- 
tarettil." Litterature. Paris, 2me serie, nos.11-12, October 15, 

1923, pp.21-23. 

"Prix Litterature et Dada." Paris-Journal. Paris, March 21, 

1924, p.i. 

"A Note on the Salons." Tht Arts. New York, vol.V, 110.4, 
April 1924, p. 191. 

"lis n'en mourrait pas tous..." Paris-Journal. Paris, May 23, 
1924, p.4. 

"Erik Satie." Paris-Journal. Paris, June 27, 1924, p.i. 

"L'Art moderne." L'Ere Nouvtllt. Pans, August 5, 1924, 
p.2. 



"Andre Derain." Paris-Journal. Paris, August n, 1924 
[attrib. D.P. X, p.165]. 

L'Esprit Nouveau. Paris, 110.26, October 1924. Special issue 
devoted to Guillaume Apollinaire. "Guiliaume Apollinairc" 
by Picabia, n.p. 

"Premiere heure." Le Mouvement Acciliri. Paris, November 
1924, p. 1. 

"Instantancisme." Comoedia. Paris, November 21, 1924, p. 4. 

"Poissons volants." L'Erc Nouvelle. Paris, November 24, 
1924. 

"Pourquoi j'ai ecrit Reldche." Unidentified newspaper 
[Action or Le Siecle?]. Paris, c. November 26, 1924 [D.P. 
XI, p.24]. 

"Pourquoi Reldche a fait relache." Comoedia. Paris, Decem- 
ber 2, 1924, p. 1. 

"Encore un peche mortel." Paris-Journal. Paris, December 
20, 1924 [attrib. D.P. XI, p. 9a]. 

Response to a survey "Les Grandes Enquetcs de L'Art Vivant 
Pour un Musee Francais d'Art Moderne." L'Art Vivant. Paris, 
August 15, 1925, p. 37. 

"Jesus-Christ Rastaquouere." The Little Review. New York, 
Autumn-Winter 1924-25, pp. 51-58. Partial translation by 
M. G. Adams and H. Storms. 

"Soleil." Paris-Soir. Paris, March 5, 1926 [attrib. D.P. XII, 
p.51]. 

"Entr'acte," "Suzette," "Marguerite" and "Pensees." This 
Quarter. Monte-Carlo, Monaco, vol.i, 110.3, 1927, pp. 301- 
04. 

"Lumiere (coide." Journal des Hivemants. Cannes, January 20- 
30, 1927 [attrib.]. Published as a preface to Circle Nautique, 
Exposition Picabia, Cannes, January 2S-February 7, 1927. 

"Picabia contre Dada ou le retour a la Raison." Comoedia. 
Paris, March 14, 1927, p.i. 

La Loi d' accommodation chez les borgnes. "Sursum Cordia". 
Paris, Editions Th. Briant, 1928. 

"Jours Creux." Orbes. Paris, no.l, Spring-Summer 1928, 
PP-29-33- 

"Preface." Galerie van Leer, Exposition Meraud-Mkhcel 
Guiness. Paris, December 2-15, 1928. 

"La Fosse des Anges." Orbes. Paris, no. 2, Spring 1929, pp.81- 



"Avenue moche." Bifur. Paris, July 25, 1929, pp. 24-29. 

"Des Perles aux pourceaux". La Revolution Surrealiste. Paris, 
no.12, December 15, 1929, pp. 48-49. Five poems. 

Response to a survey by L'Intransigeant. Paris, December 31, 
1929, p. 6. 

"Monstrcs delicieux." Orbes. Paris, no. 3, Spring 1932, pp. 
129-31; "Entr'acte," pp. 131-32. 

"Preface." Galerie Alexandre III, Photographies de Man Ray. 
Cannes, April 13-19, 1931. 

"Une petite histoire." Orbes. Paris, 110.4, Winter 1932-33, 
pp.61-63. 

"Dans mon pays." Orbes. Paris, 2me serie, 110.1, Spring 1933, 
pp.20-22. 



"Avis," "A.Z.", "Vertu H." Orbes. Paris, 2me serie, 110.4, 
Summer 1935, pp.20-22. 

"Jeunesse." L'Opinion. Cannes, March 1, 1941 [attrib.]. 

Antologia del Surrealismo. Milan, Edizioni di Uomo, 1944, 
pp. 259-60. Carlo Bo, Ed. Four poems. 

"Goetz" "Christine." Preface for Galerie d'Esquissc, Qucl- 
ques Oeuvres de Henry Goetz et de Christine Boumeester. Paris, 
March 27-April 27, 1945. 

Thalassa dans le Desert. Paris, Fontaine, collection "L'Age 
d'Or," September 3, 1945. 

"Le petit monstre." Les Quatre Vents. Paris, 110.6, 1946, pp. 
108-09. 

Explorations. Paris, Vrille, 1947. Lithographs by Henri 
Goetz. 

Choix de Poemes de Francis Picabia. Paris, G.L.M., July 1947. 
Henri Parisot, Ed. 

"Explications Antimystiques." H W P S M T B Statement. 
Galerie Colette Allendy. Paris, April 22, 1948. 

"Dans une Eglise." K. Paris, 110.3, May 1949, p.23. 

"Christine Boumeester." Paris, Instance, 1951. Texts by 
multiple authors. 

"Extraordinaire" and poems. Dan a! Set. Barcelona, vol.4, 
August-September 1952, n.p. 

"La volonte de vie et ses complications." Front Unique. 
Milan and Paris, no.l, Spring-Summer 1959, pp. 10-12. 

Dits. Paris, Eric Losfeld, Le Terrain Vague, January 20, i960. 
Aphorisms gathered by Poupard-Lieussou. 

"Manifeste de bon gout," 1923. Published, Michel Sanouillet, 
Francis Picabia et "391" , vol.11, Paris, Eric Losfeld, 1966, p. 149. 



Writings published by Pierre Andre Benoit, Ales 

5 petits poemes. January 1, 1949. 

Un poenie de Picabia: Precaution. March 1949. 

Untitled poem. September 1949. 

La Raison. September 25, 1949. 

Medicament. October 1949. 

Innocence. November 1949. Dry point etchings by Francis 
Bott. 

Le Lit. November 7, 1949. 

Chi-Lo-Sa. 1949. 

Je n'ai jamais cm. May 1950. 

Pour et Contre. May 1950. 

Le nioindre effort. December 1950. 

Le Dimanchc. 195 1. 

Ce queje desire m'est indifferent. April 195 1. Photograph cut by 
Pierre Andre Benoit. 

Le Saint Masque. September 195 1. 

591. January 1952. 

Ne pensez pas plus mal de moi. 1952. 

Fleur montce. November 1952. Sculpture planimetrique by Arp. 

Oui Non. 1953. Photomontage by Rose Adler. 



Parlons d' autre chose. January 22, 1953. 

Les //cMiry. January 29, [953. 

Ne sommes-nous pas trahis par {'importance. March 1953. 

Reveil-Matin. February 1954. 

Demain dimanche. March 1954. Collages by Pierre Andre 
Benoit. 

Poemes de Dingalari. October 1955. 

Maintenant. iysv 

Mon crayon se voile. 1957. 

La Carotide. February 1957. 

L'Equilibre. 1958. Engraving by Marcel Duchamp. 

601. Contributions by Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp, Clement 
Pansaers and Tristan Tzara. 1959. 

On bien on ne rive pas. February i960. 

Laissez deborder le hasard. March 19, 1962. Engraving by 
Giani Bertini. 



C. Interviews 

The New York Times. "Picabia, Art Rebel, Here to Teach 
New Movement." New York, February 16, 1913, sect. 5, 
p. y . 

New York Tribune. "A Post-Cubist's Impressions of New 
York." New York, March 9, 1913, part II, p.i. 

Francis Picabia. "How New York Looks to Me." The New 
York American. New York, March 30, 1913, magazine sect., 
p.n. 

M.B. "Le Dadaisme n'est qu'une farce inconsistantc." 
V Action Francaise. Paris, February 14, 1920, p. 2. 

Jack Pencil. "Vacances d'artistes." Le Figaro. Paris, August 
20, 1922, p.2. 

Gaston-Ch. Richards. "Dada aux champs." Petit Parisien. 
Paris, c. November 1922 [attrib. D.P. IX, p. 37]. 

Roger Vitrac. "Francis Picabia eveque." Journal du Peuple. 
Paris, June 9, 1923. 

R. J. "Chez Francis Picabia." Paris-Journal. Paris, May 9, 
1924 [attrib. D.P. X, p. 178]. 

Paul Gordeaux. "Hotcs d'Ete. Francis Picabia." L'Eclaireur. 
Nice, September 6, 1925 [attrib.]. 

Colline. "Un Entretien avec Francis Picabia." Journal des 
Arts. Zurich, 110.3, November 1945, pp. 50-51. 

Georges Charbonnier. Le Monologue du Peintre. Paris, 
Julliard, 1959, pp. 131-40. 



I). Lost, unpublished or incomplete writings. 

Le Mdcheur de petards. 1918. Lost? 

Les Yeux chauds. Musical planned in collaboration with 
Marthe Chenal and Igor Stravinsky, 1921. Not completed. 

Caravanserail. 1924. Lost? 

Ennazus. Unpublished poem signed and dated Rubigens, 
September 13, 1946. 



E. Magazines and pamphlets. 

391. Magazine founded and directed by Francis Picabia. 
Nineteen numbers published between January 25, 1917 and 
November 1924 in Barcelona, New York, Zurich and Paris. 
Reprinted with essay by Michel Sanouillet, Paris, Le Terrain 
Vague, i960. 

Cannibale. Magazine founded and directed by Francis 
Picabia. Paris, no.i, April 25, 1920; 110.2, May 25, 1920. 
Handbill attacking the Salon des Independants. January 1922. 

La Pomme de Pins. Saint-Raphael, V. Chailan, February 25, 
1922. 

F. Scenarios for film, ballet and the Casino at Cannes. 

Reldche. Ballet produced by the Swedish Ballet, Theatre des 
Champs-Ely sees, Paris, 1924. Scenario, sets and costumes by 
Francis Picabia; music by Erik Satie. 

Entr'acte. Paris, 1924. Filmed intermission for Reldche. 
Scenario by Francis Picabia; film by Rene Clair; music by 
Erik Satie. 

Cine Sketch. Spectacle by Francis Picabia, Theatre des 
Champs-Elysees, Paris, December 24, 1924. 

Dialogue dans la Stratosphere. Skit for the Municipal Casino, 
Cannes. Published in Le Can Can, Cannes, December 17, 
1932. 

G. Illustrations. 

Andre Breton and Philippe Soupault. Les Champs magne- 
tiques. Paris, Au Sans Pareil, May 30, 1920. 

Tristan Tzara. Sept Manifestos Dada. Paris, Jean Budry ct 
Cic., 1924. 

Blaise Cendrars. Kodacks. Paris, Stock, 1924. 

Andre Maurois. Le Poseur d'Amcs. Paris, Antoine Roche 
Editeur, 193 1. 

Murilo Mendes. Jancla do Caos. Paris, Ambassador of Brazil, 
1949. 



II. References to Picabia and his milieu 

Paul Achard. "Soirs de Paris." Le Siecle. Paris, December 6, 
1924 [attrib. D.P. XIII, p. 58]. 

Paul Achard. "Picabia m'a dit." Le Siecle. Paris, January 1, 
1925, p. 4 [attrib. D.P. XI, loose p.]. 

Marcel Adenia. Apollinaire. New York, Grove Press, 1955. 
Translated by Denise Folliot. 

William Agee. "New York Dada, 1910-1930." Art News 
Annual - The Avant-Garde. New York, XXXIV, 1968, pp. 
104-13. 

Maurice Aisen. "The Latest Evolution in Art and Picabia." 
Camera Work. New York, special issue, no.41, June 1913, 
pp. 14-21. 

Lawrence Alloway. "London Letter." .4rr International. 
Zurich, vol.III, no.9, 1959, pp.2 1-24. 

America and Alfred Stieglitz: A Collective Portrait edited by 
Waldo Frank, Lewis Mumford, Dorothy Norman, Paul Rosen- 
fold and Harold Rugg. New York, Doubleday, Doran and 
Co., 1934- 

Margaret Anderson. My Thirty Years' War. New York, 
Covici, Fricde Publishers, 1930. 






Edouard Andre. Picabia. Paris, Eugene Rey, 1908. Reprinted 
from L'Art Decoratif Paris, 110.101, February 1907, pp. 41-8. 

Anonymous [Elizabeth Luther Carey?]. "Art at Home and 
Abroad: News and Comments." The New York Times. 
January 24, 1915, sect. 5, p. 11. Reprinted in Camera Work, 
New York, no. 48, October 1916, p. 17. 

Guillaume Apollinaire. "Du Sujet dans la Peinture moderne." 
Les Soirees de Paris. Paris, no. I, February 1912, pp. 1-4. 

Guillaume Apollinaire. Chroniques A' Art. Paris, Gallimard, 
i960. Edited with preface and notes by L.-C. Breunig. 

Guillaume Apollinaire. Les Peintrcs Cubistes. Paris, E. 
Figuiere, 1913. 

Guillaume Apollinaire. Les Peintrcs Cubistes. Hermann, 
Paris, 1965. L. C. Breunig and J.-Cl. Chevalier, Eds. 

Arlequin. Paris, December I, 1923 [attrib. D.P. X, p.122]. 
Note on Salon d'Automne. 

Noel Arnaud. La Religion ct la morale de Francis Picabia. 
Verviers, Belgium, Temps Meles, March 1958. 

Noel Arnaud. "Picabia ou la survie d'un loustic." Cahiers 
du College de Pataphysique. Paris, nouvelle serie, no. 18-19, 
1962, pp.93-101. 

Art Institute of Chicago. Paintings in the Art Institute of 
Chicago. 1961, p. 355. 

The Arts. "Paris Postscripts." New York, July 1925, pp. 51- 
54; August 1925, p. 109. 

Arts and Decoration. Review, New York, April 1916, p. 286. 

Arts and Decoration. Review of exhibition at the Modern 
Gallery, New York, November 1915, pp. 35-36. 

Arts Council of Great Britain. The Almost Complete Works of 
Marcel Duchamp. London, The Tate Gallery, June 18-July 
31, I966- 

M.B. "Le Dadaisme." L' Action Francaise. Paris, February 14, 
1920, p. 2. 

Les Ballets Suedois dans l'art cotitemporain. Paris, Editions du 
Trianon, 193 1. 

Henri Martin Barzun. Orpheus, Modern Culture and the igij 
Renaissance. New York, Liberal Press, i960. 

Pierre Andre Benoit. A propos des "Poemes de la file nee sans 
mere", Ales, 1958. 

Par Bergman. "Modemolatria" et "Simultaneita". Recherches 
sur deux tendances dans V avant-garde litteraire en Italie et en 
France a la veille de la premiere guerre mondiale. Bonniers, 
Sweden, Studia Litterarum Upsaliensia II, 1962. 

Myron Bibline. Sur le chemin du Calvaire. Golfe Juan, 
Imprimerie Moderne, 1941. 

Marguerite Bonnet. "A propos de Cortege: Apollinaire et 
Picabia." Revue des Lettres Modernes. Paris, special Apolli- 
naire number, November 1963, pp. 62-75. 

Maurice Bouisson. "Relache-Entr'acte de Picabia et Erik . 
Satie." Evenement. Paris, December 1924 [attrib. D.P. XI, 
P-23]- 

Marcel Boulanger. "Herr Dada." Nouvelles. Bordeaux, 
May 3, 1920 [attrib. D.P. II, p. 13]. 

Andre Breton. "Pour Dada." La Nouvelle Revue Francaise. 
Paris, 110.83, August 1, 1920, pp. 208-15. 



Andre Breton. "Lachez tout." Litthature. Paris, nouvelle 
serie, 110.2, April 1, 1922, pp. 8-10. 

Andre Breton. "Francis Picabia." The Little Review. London 
and New York, Winter 1922, pp.41-44. 

Andre Breton. Les Pas perdus. Paris, Gallimard, 1924. 

Andre Breton. Le Surrealisme et la peinture. New York, 
Brentano's, 1945. 

Christian Brinton. Impressions of the Art at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition and an Introductory Essay on the Modern 
Spirit in Contemporary Painting. New York, J. Lane Co., 
1916. 

Brooklyn New York Eagle. "Civitas Learns About Modern 
Art." April 10, 1913 [attrib. D.P. I, p. 124]. 

Van Wyck Brooks. The Confident Years. New York, E. P. 
Dutton and Co., Inc., 1952. 

Milton Brown. American Paintingfrom the Armory Show to the 
Depression. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1955. 

Milton Brown. The Story of the Armory Show. New York, 
Joseph Hirshhorn Foundation, distributed by The New York 
Graphic Society, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1963. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "Modern Art and the Public." 
Camera Work. New York, special issue, no.41, June 1913, 
pp.10-13. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "On demande: 'Pourquoi 391? 
Qu'est-ce que 391 ?'." Plastique. Paris, no. 2, Summer 1937, 
pp.2-8. 

Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia. "Matieres Plastiques." XXc Steele, 
Paris, vol. 1-2 no. 2, May 1, 1938, pp. 31-35. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "Some Memories of Pre-Dada: 
Picabia and Duchamp." The Dada Painters and Poets, Robert 
Motherwell, Ed. New York, Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 
1951, pp.255-67. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "La Section d'Or. Art d'Aujour- 
d'hui. Paris, vol.4 May, 1953, pp. 74-76. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "Picabia, l'inventeur." L'Oeil. 
Paris, 110.18, June 1956, pp. 30-35, 44-45. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. "Aux temps du Futurisme." Infor- 
mation et Documents. Paris, January 1, 1957, pp. 32-37. 

Gabrielle BufFet-Picabia. Aires abstraites. Geneva, Pierre 
Cailler Editeur, 1957. 

Pierre Cabamie. "Cinquantc ans de plaisir avec Picabia, 
l'insaisissable." Lectures pour tons. Paris, 110.155, November 
1966, pp. 16-21, 23-25. 

William A. Camfield. Francis Picabia (lSyg-igsj). A Study of 
His Career from lSg^-igiS. Ph. D. dissertation, Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven, Connecticut, 1964. 

William A. Camfield. "The Machinist Style of Francis 
Picabia." The Art Bulletin. New York, vol.XLVIII, Septem- 
ber-December 1966, pp. 309-22. 

Joan Candoer. "In the World of Society." The Chicago 
Examiner. March 28, 1913, p. 9. 

Benjamin de Casseres. "Modernity and the Decadence." 
Camera Work. New York, no. 37, January 1912, pp. 17-19. 

Jean Cassou. "Le Musee d'Art Moderne va exposer deux 
toiles anciennes de Picabia." Arts. Paris, 110.165, May 7, 1948, 
p.5. 

Georges Charensol. "Manifestation Dada." Comoedia. Paris, 
March 29, 1920, p. 2. 



Georges Charensol. "Au Salon des Independants, Dccou- 
vertes." Paris-Journal. Paris, February 15, 1924, p. 4. 

J.-C. Chevalier and L. C. Brcunig. "Apolhnairc et 'Lcs 
Peintres Cubistes'." La Revue des Lettres Modemes. Paris, nos. 
104-107, 1964, pp.S9-ii2. 

Herschel B. Cliipp. "Orphism and Color Theory." The Art 
Bulletin. New York, vol.40, March 1958, pp. 55-63. 

G. Christian [Georges Herbiet]. "In the Minor Key of an 
Epoch." The Little Review. London and New York, Winter 
1922, pp.29-34. 

G. Christian [Georges Herbiet], "Interview." Volenti. Paris, 
March 4, 1926 [attrib. D.P. XII, p. 49]. Reprinted in This 
Quarter, Monte Carlo, Monaco, vol.i, 110.3, 1927. 

The Christian Science Monitor. "Picabia's Puzzles." Boston, 
January 29, 1916. 

Claude-Roger. "Au Salon d'Automne, Maitres Cubes." La 
Comiiie Artistique. Paris, October 5, 1912, pp. 62-5. 

Jean Cocteau. "Cocteau saluant Picabia." The Little Review. 
London, Spring 1922, p. 20. 

Raymond Cogniat. "Pourquoi M. Signac a refuse 2 toiles a 
M. Picabia." Comoedia. Paris, January 21, 1922, p. 2. 

Jean Crotti. Courants A' Air stir le Chcmiu de ma I 'ie. Paris, 

1941. Engravings by Jacques Villon. 

The Dada Painters ami Poets, New York, Wittenborn, 
Schulz, Inc., 1951, Robert Motherwell, Ed. 

Dan al Set "Fixe". Special number devoted to Picabia, 
Barcelona, August-September 1952. 

Andre-L. Daven. "Entr'acte." Comoedia. Paris, October 31, 
1924, p.4. 

Robert Delaunay. Du Cubisme a I 'Art ahstrait. Paris, S.E.V.P. 
E.N., 1957. New documents published by Pierre Francastel; 
catalogue by Guy Habasquc. 

Paul Dcrmec. "Vernissage au Whisky Picabia." La I 'ie des 
Lettres. Paris, vol. IV, April 11, 1921, pp. 423-25. 

Robert Desnos. "Francis Picabia." Paris-Journal. Paris, 
January 18, 1924, p. 5. 

Marius de Zayas and Paul Haviland. A Study of the Modern 
Evolution of Plastic Expression. New York, 291, Marcli 1, 
1913. 

Bernard Dorival. "Les Nouvelles Artistiques." Les Nourelles 
Litteraires. Paris, May 20, 1948 [attrib.]. 

Bernard Dorival. Twentieth Century Painters. New York, 
Universe Books, Inc., 1958. Translated by W. J. Strachan. 

Marcel Duchamp. "Eleven Europeans in America." The 
Museum of Modern Art Bulletin. New York, vol. XIII, nos. 4- 
5, 1946, p.21. 

Marcel Duchamp. Marchand du Sel, ecrits de Marcel Duchamp. 
Paris, Le Terrain Vague, 1958. Michel Sanouillet, Ed. 

Marcel Duchamp. The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, 
Even. New York, George Wittenborn, Inc., i960. A typo- 
graphic version by Richard Hamilton ot Marcel Duchamp's 
Green Box. Translated by George Heard Hamilton. 

L'Echo de Paris. Paris, December 17, 1921, p. 2. Notice of 
forthcoming Salon des Independants. 

Arthur Jerome Eddy. Cubists and Post-Impressionists. Chicago, 
A. C. McClurg and Co., 1914. 



Rene Edouard-Joseph. Dictionnaire Biographique des artistes 
contemporains 1910-1930. Paris, Librairie Grund, vol.3, '934. 
pp. 1 27-28. 

Germaine Everling-Picabia. "C'ctaithier Dada." Les Oeuvres 
Libres. Paris, nouvclle seric, 110.109, June 1955, PP-U9-78. 

Germaine Everling-Picabia. "Francis Picabia vu d'en haut." 
August 1955. 

M. F. "Picabia." Artwork. London, vol.3, 110.12, January- 
March 1928, pp. 248-9. 

Christopher Finch. "And Picabia." Art and Artists. London, 
vol. 1, 110.4, July 1966, pp. 52-3. 

Fixe. See Dau al Set. 

For and Against. Views on the International Exhibition held 
in New York and Chicago. New York, The Association of 
American Painters and Sculptors, Inc., 1913. Frederick 
James Gregg, Ed. 

491, 50 ans de plaisir. Paris, March 4, 1949. Exhibition 
catalogue. Michel Tapie and Rene Drouin, Eds. Texts by 
Andre Breton, Charles Esticnnc, S. Ghandi, Olga Picabia, 
Gabriclle Buffet, Henri-Pierre Roche, Michel Seuphor, 
Robert Desnos, Camille Brycn, B. Fricker, Dede de l'Opera, 
Jean van Heeckcren, Michel Perrin, Marcel Duchamp, Geor- 
ges Charbonnicr, H.-B. Goctz, Francis Bott, Francis Picabia, 
P. de Massot. 

Michel Georges-Michel. From Renoir to Picasso. Boston, 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1957, pp. 174-81. Translated 
by Dorothy and Randolph Weaver. 

Siegfried Giedion. Mechanization Takes Command. New 
York, Oxford University Press, 1948. 

Gil Bias. "Les editions de 'L'Ours'." Paris, December 3 1 , 
1913. P-4- 

Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. Cubism. London, T. 
Fisher Unwin, 1913. 

Juliette Roche Gleizes. Memoirs, from 1915-1923, written 
I959-I963- 

John Golding. Cubism: A History and Analysis, 1907-1914. 
New York, George Wittenborn, Inc., 1959. 

Paul Guth. "Francis Picabia." La Gazette des Lettres. Paris, 
June 28, 1947. 

A. Gybal. "Le 'true' de M. Picabia." Journal du Peuple. Paris, 

January 21, 1922, p. 2. 

L. H. "Le Reveillon Cacodylatc." Comoedia. Paris, January 2, 
1922, p. 3. 

Guy Habasquc. Cubism. Paris, Skira, 1959. Translated by 
Stuart Gilbert. 

George Heard Hamilton. Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 
1S80 to 1940. Baltimore, Penguin Books, 1967. 

Hutchins Hapgood. "A Paris Painter." The Globe and 
Commercial Advertiser. New York, February 20, 1913, p. 8. 

Paul Haviland. Statement in 291. New York, nos. 7-8, 
September-October 191 5. 

Jean van Heeckcren. Francis Picabia. Seize dessitts. 1930. Paris, 
Collection Orbcs, 1946. 

Georges Hugnct. L'Avcnturc dada (1916-1922). Paris, Galerie 
de l'Institut, 1957. 



Ronald Hunt. "The Picabia-Breton Axis." Artforum. Los 
Angeles, vol.V, no.i, September 1966, pp. 17-20. 

L' Intransigent. "Les Arts - au Salon d'Automne." Paris, 
October 13, 1921, p. 2. 

George Isarlov. Picabia Peintre. Paris, Collection Orbes, 
1929. 

Max Jacob. Correspondance Max Jacob par Francois Gamier. 
Paris, Editions de Paris, 1953, vol.1, 1876-1921. 

Marcel Jean. The History oj Surrealist Painting. London, 
Weidenfeld and Nicolson, i960. Translated by Simon 
Watson Taylor. Paris, Editions de Seuil, 1959. 

Alain Jouffroy. "Francis Picabia, 1'irreductible." Aujourd'- 
hui. Paris, no. 36, April 1962, pp.S-11. Reprinted in Jouffroy 's 
Une Revolution Au Regard, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, pp. 125-29. 

Marie de La Hire. Francis Picabia. Paris, La Galerie La Cible, 
1920. 

Louis Laloy. Review of "L' Autre des Gnomes." Comocdia. 
Paris, July 4, 1920. 

Robert Lebel. Marcel Duchamp. New York, Grove Press, 
Inc., 1959. Translated by George Heard Hamilton. 

Marc LeBot. Francis Picabia, et la crise des valeurs figuratives, 
1900-10,25. Paris, Editions Klincksieck, 1968. 

Jean-Gabriel Lemoiiie. "Dadaisme." Je sais tout. Paris, June 
1920, PP.58S-91. 

Jacques-Henri Levesque. "Picabia et Dada." Dan al Set. 
Barcelona, vol.4, August-September 1952. 

El Lissitzky and Mary Whittall. El Lissitzky. Greenwich, 
Connecticut, New York Graphic Society, 1968. Translated 
by Helenc Aldwinckle. 

Mabel Dodge Luhan. Intimate Memoirs. 5 vols. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1936. See esp. vol.3, 
Movers and Shakers. 

G. Maillot-Duparc. "Le bon True . . ." Tribune. Paris, 
January 31, 1922 [attrib. D.P. VIII, p. 113]. 

Rolf de Mare. "A propos de 'Relache'." Comoedia. Paris, 
November 27, 1924 [attrib. D.P. XI, p. 16]. 

Vivian du Mas. "L'Occultisme dans Fart de Francis Picabia." 
Orbes. Paris, no. 3, Spring 1932, pp. 113-28. 

Pierre de Massot. "Souvenirs." La Ncrvic. Braine-Le-Comte, 
Belgium, May 1921 [attrib. D.P. VII, p. 52]. 

Pierre de Massot. De Mallanne a 391. Saint-Raphael, Au Bel 
Exemplaire, 1922. 

Pierre de Massot. Francis Picabia. Paris, Poetcs d'aujour- 
d'hui, Editions Pierre Segers, 1966. 

Le Matin. "Ne riez pas e'est de la peinture et ca represent^ 
unejeune americaine." Paris, December 1, 1913, p.i. 

William B. McCormick. "Patrons Vote to Decide Fate of 
Photo-Secession Gallery at N0.291 Fifth Avenue." New 
York Press. October 4, 1914, p. 6. 

James R. Mellow. "New York Letter." Art International. 
Lugano, vol. XI, 110.3, March 20, 1967, p. 59. 

George Merizl. "Courier des lettres et des arts." Lanteme. 
Paris, January I, 1914, p. 2. 

Louis de Meurville. "Une Exposition Tri-nationale." 
Gaulois. Paris, May 31, 1925 [attrib. D.P. XII, p. 21]. 



Harriet Monroe. "Davidson Sculpture Proves That Artist 
Has Ideas." The Chicago Sunday Tribune. March 23, 1913, 
part 8, p. 5. 

Maurice Morris. The Sun. New York, February 23, 1913. 

The Museum of Modern Art. Dada, Surrealism and Their 
Heritage. New York, 1968. William S. Rubin, Ed. 

Nantille. "Le Chateau de Mai." La Saison de Cannes. Cannes, 
January 8, 1927 [attrib. D.P. XII, p. 102]. 

Nebraska State Journal. Lincoln, February 9, 1913, p. 37. 

The New York Herald. "Mr. Picabia Paints 'Coon Songs'." 
March 18, 1913, p. 12. 

New York Tribune. "French Artists Spur on an American 
Art." October 24, 1915, part IV, p.2. 

Philip Pearlstein. The Paintings of Francis Picabia. Unpub- 
lished Master of Arts thesis, New York University, Institute 
of Fine Arts, February 1955. 

Philip Pearlstein. "The Symbolic Language of Francis 
Picabia." Arts. New York, vol.30, January 1956, pp. 37-43. 

Francis Picabia 1879-1954. Homage to Picabia with texts by 
Jean Arp, Camille Bryen, Marcel Duchamp, B. Fricker, 
Jean van Heeckeren, Georges Isarlov, Jacques-Henri Levesque, 
Man Ray, Pierre de Massot, Michel Perrin, H. St.-Maurice, 
Pierre Aidre Benoit. Paris, Orbes, April 20, 1955. 

Camille Pissarro. Camille Pissarro, Lettres a son fits Lucien. 
Editions Albin Michel, 1943. John Rewald, Ed. with the 
assistance of Lucien Pissarro. 

Ezra Pound. "Literature Abroad." The Literary Review. 
London, August 13, 1921, p. 7. 

Ellen Prevot. Review of the Salon des Independants, Le 
Midi. Toulouse, February 19, 1922, p.i. 

Gaston Ravel. "Exposition de Peinture." La Critique Ciuema- 
tographique. Paris, October 29, 1929 [attrib. Picabia scrap- 
book, Olga Picabia]. 

Man Ray. Self Portrait. Boston, Little Brown and Company, 
1963. 

Maurice Raynal. Anthologie de la Peinture en France de 1906 
a nos jours. Paris, Editions Montaigne, 1927, pp. 255-58. 

Maurice Raynal. Modem Painting. Lausanne, Skira, i960. 

Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. Deja jadis. Paris, Rene 
Julliard, 1958. 

Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. "Dans la brume des souve- 
nirs." Mercure de France. Paris, 110.1185, May 1962, pp.113-8. 

Jacques Riviere. "Reconnaissance a Dada." La Nouvelle 
Revue Francaise. Paris, 110.83, August 1, 1920, pp. 216-37. 

Juliette Roche [Gleizes]. La Mineralisation de Dudley Craving 
MacAdam. Paris, Imprimerie Croutzet et Depost, 1924. 

L. Roger-Miles. Prefaces to Picabia exhibitions at the Galerie 
Haussmann (February 1905 and February 1907) and at the 
Galeries Georges Petit, March 1909. 

Robert Rosenblum. Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art. New 
York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., i960. 

William S. Rubin. Dada and Surrealist Art. New York, 
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1969. 

Andre Salmon. La jeune peinture francaise. Paris, Societe 
des Trente, 1912, pp.82-83. 

Samuel Swift. Review in The New York Sun. March 1913. 
Reprinted in Camera Work, New York, nos.42-3, April- 
July 1913, pp.46-47. 



Michel Sanouillet. Picabia. Paris, L'Ocil du temps, 1964. 

Michel Sanouillet. jgi. Revue publiie de 1917 a 1924 par 
Francis Picabia. Rendition integrate, Paris, Le Terrain Vague, 
i960. 

Michel Sanouillet. Dada a Paris. Paris, Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 
1965. 

Michel Sanouillet. Francis Picabia et "391". Paris, vol.11, 
Eric Losfeld, 1966. 

Michel Seuphor. L'Art abstrail, ses origines, ses premiers 
maitrcs. Paris, Maeght, 1950, p. 308. 

Charles Sirato. "Dimensionisme." Plastique. Paris, 110.2, 
Summer, 1937, pp. 25-28. 

Gertrude Stein. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New 
York, 1933. 

Gertrude Stein. Everybody's Autobiography. New York, 
Random House, 1937. 

The Sun. "What is Happening in the World of Art." New 
York, January 23, 1916, sect. 5, p. 8. 

Suprimatie Commercialc. London, De Trey and Co., Ltd, 
c. 1921-22. Dentistry booklet modified by Picabia, Collec- 
tion Schwarz Gallery, Milan. 

Temps meles. Parade pour Picabia-Pausaers. Verviers, Bel- 
gium, March 21, 1958. Homages by multiple authors. 

T/nV Quarter. "Francis Picabia in His Latest Moods." Monte- 
Carlo, Monaco, vol.i, 110.3, T 9 2 7, pp. 296-304. 

Tristan Tzara. "Pic (3f9pl) bia." Litterature. Paris, no. 10, 
December 1919, p. 28. 

Tristan Tzara. Le coeur a Barbe. Paris, April 1922. 

E. Vermeersch. "Salon de Peinture." Le Reveil du Mini. 
Lille, November 21, 1922, p.i. 

Glauco Viazzi. Entr'acte. Milan, Poligono Societa Editriee 
in Milano, 1945. 

Berthe Weill. Pan! dans I'OeiU... Paris, Libraine Lip- 
schutz, 1933. 

Whip. "Au Salon d'Automne." Le Canard Enchainc. Paris, 
November 7, 1923, p. 4. 

F. Will-Levaillant. "Picabia et la machine: symbole et ab- 
straction." Revue de Vart. Paris, 110.4, 1969, pp. 74-82. 

The World. New York, February 17, 1913, p. 16. 

The World. New York, March 23, 1913. 



III. Magazines 

Camera Work. Alfred Stieglitz, Ed. New York, vol.l, 
January 1903 - vol.50, June 1917. 

Dada. Tristan Tzara, Ed. Zurich and Paris, no. 1, July 1917 - 
110.7, March 1920. Dada au grand air sometimes considered 
Dada no.8. 

Dada au grand air. Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp and Max Ernst, 
Eds. with participation of Paul Eluard, Theodore Fraenkel, 
G. Ribeniont-Dessaignes and Philippe Soupault. Tarrenz 
B. Imst., September 1921. Also considered as final number 
of Dada. 

L'Esprit Nouveau. Directed by Paul Dcrmee, Aniadee 
Ozcnfant and Charles Edouard Jeannerct. Paris, no. I, Oc- 
tober 1920 - 110.28, January 1925. 



Litterature. Louis Aragon, Andre Breton and Philippe 
Soupault, Eds. Paris, March 1919-Junc 1924. 

Plastique. Paris and New York, nos.1-5, Spring 1937-1939. 

La Revolution Surrealiste. Pierre Naville, Benjamin Perct 
and Andre Breton, Eds. Paris, December 1, 1924-Dccember 
15, 1929- 
Rongwrong. Edited by Marcel Duchamp. New York, 1917. 

291. Directed by Alfred Stieglitz. New York, no. I, March 
1915-110. 12, February 1916. 



IV. Unpublished sources 

The Francis Bacon Foundation, Claremont, California. 
Photographs and letters from Mine. Gabriellc BurTet- 
Picabia (and Francis Picabia?) to Walter Arensberg. 

Scrapbook of the Congress of Paris. Letters, clippings and 
manuscripts collected by Andre Breton. Paris, Manuscript 
Room, Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques Doucet. Outstanding collection 
of published and unpublished material including the Dossiers 
Picabia and correspondence by Jacques Doucet, Marcel 
Duchamp, Pierre de Massot, Georges Ribeniont-Dessaignes, 
Georges Herbiet [Christian], and many others. 

Gcrmainc Everling-Picabia and Mariane de Rochgau. 
L'Anneau de Saturne. Preface by Jean Cocteau. Unpublished 
manuscript signed July 1953. 

Henri Goetz and Christine Boumeester. Numerous letters 
and some drawings by Picabia, c. 1945-195 1. 

Jean van Hecckeren. Picabia, I'imprevisible. Unpublished 
text dated "Spring 1939"; appendix dated "March 1947." 

Jean van Hecckeren. Picabia nom magiquc. Unpublished 
manuscript signed and dated Paris, February 1948. 

Mabel Dodge Luhan Archives, Yale Collection of American 
Literature, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Scrapbooks containing clippings and miscellaneous data on 
Francis Picabia. 

Olga Picabia. Un quart de sieclc avec Picabia. Unpublished 
manuscript covering the years 1925-1953. 

Olga Picabia Scrapbook. One volume of clippings, photo- 
graphs and unpublished manuscripts. 

Dossiers Picabia. Thirteen scrapbooks of clippings, letters, 
photographs and drawings collected by Francis Picabia 
from c.1904-1927. Paris, Bibliotheque Litteraire Jacques 
Doucet. 

Collection of the Societe Anonyme, Museum of Modern 
Art, 1920. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Several letters of Mme. Buffct-Picabia; catalogues and 
photographs pertaining to Francis Picabia. 

Gertrude Stein Archives. Yale Collection of American 
Literature, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Letters of Francis Picabia, 1913-1946. 

Alfred Stieglitz Archives. Yale Collection of American 
Literature, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 
Letters, drawings and manuscripts by Francis Picabia; 
letters, catalogues and scrapbooks with clippings, photo- 
graphs and miscellaneous data pertaining to Francis Picabia. 

Marius de Zayas Archives. In the possession of Mrs. Marius 
de Zayas and her son, R. de Zayas. Letters, invoices and cata- 
logues, relevant to Alfred Stieglitz, Picabia, The Modern 
Gallery and various artists. 



156 



Exhibitions 



Societe des Artistes Francais. Salon de lSgg. Paris, May 1899. 

Hereafter referred to as Salon. 

Salon. May 1901. 

Salon. May 1902. 

Societe des Artistes Independants. Salon de 1903. Paris, March 

20-April 25, 1903. Hereafter referred to as Independants. 

Salon. May 1903. 

Societe du Salon d'Automne. Salon de 1903. Paris, October 31- 
December 6, 1903. Hereafter referred to as Salon d'Automne. 

Salon. May 1904. 

Galerie Berthe Weill. Exhibition of Dufy, Girieud, Picabia, 

Picasso and Thiesson. Paris, October 1904. 

Salon d'Automne. October 15-November 15, 1904. 

Galerie Haussmann. Picabia. Paris, February 10-25, 1905. 
Preface by L. Roger-Miles. 

Salon. May 1905. 

Salon d'Automne. November 1905. 

Galeries Georges Petit. Deuxieme Salon de la Gravure Originalc 

en Couleurs. Paris, November 1905. 

Grand Palais. Troisieme Salon de I'Ecole Francaisc. Paris, January 

26-February 25, 1906. 

Caspar's Kunst-Salon. Exposition Picabia. Berlin, April 1906. 

Salon. May 1906. 

Galeries Georges Petit. Troisieme Salon de la Gramire Originalc en 

Couleurs. Paris, November 1906. 

Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Exposition des Acquisitions de I'Etat. 

Paris, December 1906. 

Galerie Haussmann. Picabia. Paris, February 1— 15, 1907. Preface 

by L. Roger-Miles. 

Grand Palais. Quatrieme Salon de I'Ecole Francaise. Paris, February 

1907. 

Cremetti Gallery. Picabia. London, March 1907. 

Salon. May 1907. 

Galeries Georges Petit. Quatrieme Salon de la Gravure Originalc en 

Couleurs. Paris, October 22-November 17, 1907. 

Galeries Georges Petit. Exposition de Tableaux par F. Picabia. 

Paris, March 17-31, 1909. Preface by L. Roger-Miles. 

Hotel Drouot. Tableaux, aquarelles, dcssins,gravures, eaux-jortes par 

F. Picabia. Public auction. Paris, March 8, 1909. 

Salle Boieldien. Exposition de Peinture Modcrne [1st exhibit of the 

Societe Normande de Peinture Moderne]. Rouen, December 20, 

1909-January 20, 1910. Introduction by Elie Faure. 

Galerie de l'Art Contemporain. Exposition de Sculpture, Peinture, 

Art Decoratif. Paris, November iS, 1909-January 15, 1910. 

Preface by Louis Vauxcelles. 

Salon d'Automne. October i-November 8, 1910. 

Independants. April 21-June 13, 1911. 

Societe Normande de la Peinture Moderne. Deuxihne 
Exposition. Rouen, May 1911. 

Salon d'Automne. October i-November S, 191 1. 

Galerie d'Art Ancien et d'Art Contemporain. Exposition d'Art 
Contemporain. Paris, November 20-December 16, 191 1. Preface 
by Rene Blum. 

Independants. March 20-May 16, 1912. 



Soci&e Normande de Peinture Moderne. Salon dejuin 
[Troisieme Exposition!. Rouen, June 15-July 15, 1912. Prefaces 
by Elie Fame and Maurice Raynal. 

Galerie de La Boetie. Salon de La Section d'Or. Paris, October 
10-30, 1912. Preface by Rene Blum. 

Salon d'Automne. October i-Novembcr 8, 1912. 

Association of American Painters and Sculptors. International 
Exhibition of Modern Art [The Armory Show]. New York, 
February 17-March 15, 1913. Participating museums: Art 
Institute of Chicago, March 24-April 15, 1913; Copley Society 
of Boston, April 28-May 18, 1913. 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291]. Picabia Exhibition. 
New York, March 17-April 5, 1913. Preface by Francis Picabia. 

Independants. March 19-May iS, 1913. 

Dcr Sturm Galerie. Erster Deutscher Herbstsalon. Berlin, August, 
1913. Preface by HerwarthWalden. 

Salon d'Automne. November 15, 1913-January 5, 1914. 

Independants. March I-April 30, 1914. 

De Onafhankelijken. jdc Internationale Jury - I 'rije Teutoou- 
stelling. Amsterdam, May-June 1914. 

Little Gallery of the Photo-Secession [291]. Picabia Exhibition. 
New York, January 12-26, 1915. 

Modern Gallery. Opening Exhibition. New York, October 
1915. 

Modern Gallery. Picabia Exhibition. New York, January 5—25, 
1916. 

J. E. McClees and Co. Exhibition of Modern Art. Philadelphia, 
May-June 1916. 

Bourgeois Galleries. Exhibition of Modern Art. New York, 

February 10-March 10, 1917. 

The Society of Independent Artists. First Annual Exhibition. New 

York, April 10-May 6, 1917. 

The Society of Independent Artists. Second Annual Exhibition. 

New York, April 20-May 12, 1918. 

Le Salon d'Art Wolfsberg. Exhibition of Modern Art. Zurich, 
September 1918. 

Kunsthaus Zurich "Das None Lcben" Erste Ausstellung. 
January 12-February 5, 1919. Preface by Marcel Janco. 
Originated in Basel, November 191S? 

Arden Gallery. The Evolution of French Art. New York, April 
29-May 24, 1919. Organized by Marius de Zayas. 

Salon d'Automne. November i-December 10, 1919. 

Cirque d'FIiver. Exhibition of Modern Art. Paris, December 1919. 

Independants. January 2S-February 29, 1920. 

Galerie Moos. Peinture et Sculpture Cubiste. Geneva, February 
1920. Not verified. 

Salon Neri. Dada Exhibition. Geneva, March 1920. Not 
verified. 

Au Sans Pared. Exposition Dada: Francis Picabia. Paris, April 16- 
30, 1920. 

Brauhaus Winter. Dada - I 'orfruhling: Gemdlde, Skulpturen, 
Zeichnungen, Fluidoskeptrik, Vulgardilettantismus. Cologne, April- 
May 1920. 

Kunsthandlung Dr. Otto Burchard. Erste Internationale Dada- 
Messe. Berlin, June 5-August 25, 1920. 

Galleries of the Socicte Anonyme. First Exhibition. New York, 
April 30-Junc 15, 1920. 

Galleries of the Socicte Anonyme. Third Exhibition. New York, 
August 2-Septcmbcr II, 1920. 



Salon d'Automne. October 15-Decembcr 12, 1920. 

Galerie Povolosky [Galerie dc La Ciblc]. Exposition Picabia. 

Paris, December 10-25, 1920. 

Indipendants. January 23-Fcbruary 28, 1921. 

Galerie Dalpayrat. Exposition Picabia. Limoges, February I— 15, 

1921. 

Worcester Art Museum. Paintings by Members of the Socicte 

Anonyme. November 3-Decembcr 5, 1921. 

,S",i/(iii d'Automne. November i-Dcccmber 20, 1021. 

Art Institute of Chicago. The Arthur J. Eddy Collection. Chicago, 
1922. 

Independants. January 28-February 28, 1922. 
MacDowell Club. Exhibition of the Collection of the Sociiti 
Anonyme. New York, April 24-May 8, 1922. 
Salon d'Automne. November i-December 17, 1922. 

Galeries Dalmau. Exposition Francis Picabia. Barcelona, 

November iS-December 8, 1922. Preface by Andre Breton. 

Independants. February 10-March II, 1923. 

Exposition chcz Danthon. Francis Picabia. Paris, May 1923. 

Preface by G[crmaine] Efverling]. 

Socicte "Les Amis des Arts". Exposition. Limoges, May 10- 

June 3, 1923. 

Salon dc Grenoble. Grenoble, June 1923. 

Societc des Amateurs d'Art et des Collectionneurs. Lc Salon de 

la folic enchere. Paris, November 15-30, 1923. 

Salon d'Automne. November i-December 16, 1923. 

Indipendants. February 9-March 12, 1924. 

Galerie Mesens. Brussels, 1924. Not verified. 

Galeries Durand-Ruel. Tri-National Exhibition. Paris, May 28-?, 

1925; London, October 1925; New York, November 1925. 

Hotel Drouot. Tableaux, aquarelles et dessins par Francis Picabia 

appartenant a M. Marcel Duchamp. Public auction. Paris, March 8, 

1926. Preface by Marcel Duchamp. 

Galerie Barbazanges. Exposition. Paris, April 1926. 
Hotel Drouot. Public auction. Paris, May 31, 1926. 
The Brooklyn Museum. An International Exhibition of Modern 
Art. Assembled by the Socicte Anonyme. New York, November 
9, 1926-January 1, 1927; Anderson Galleries, New York, 
January 25-February 5, 1927. 

Cercle Nautique. Exposition Francis Picabia. Cannes, January 28- 
February 7, 1927. Preface by Emcran Clemansin du Maine. 
Galerie Bcrnheim Jeune. Exposition multinational. Paris, January 
1927. 

Socicte des Beaux-Arts de Nice. 50111c Exposition. March 1927. 
Galerie Van Leer. Exposition Picabia. Paris, October 24- 
November 5, 1927. 

Galerie Briant-Robert. Francis Picabia. Paris, November 11-30, 

1927. Preface by Robert Desnos. 

Chez Fabre. Exposition Francis Picabia. Cannes, February 20-25, 

1928. Statement by Emile Fabrc; prolegomenis by Emcran 
Clemansin du Maine. 

The Intimate Gallery. Picabia Exhibition. New York, April 19- 
May 11, 1928. 

Galerie Theophile Briant. Francis Picabia. Paris, October 26- 
November 15, 1928. 

Chez Fabre. Exposition Francis Picabia. Cannes, April 1 1-27, 

1929. Preface by E. Fabre. 

Galerie Theophile Briant. Exposition Picabia. Paris, November 
12-December 7, 1929. 



158 



Galerie Goemans. Exposition de Collages [Louis Aragon's La 

Peinture an deft]. Paris, March 1930. 

Galerie Alexandre III. Exposition Picabia. Cannes, August 1930. 

Kunstsalon Wolfsberg. Produktion Paris 1930. Zurich, October 

8-November 15, 1930. 

Chez Leonce Rosenberg. Exposition Francis Picabia. Paris, 

December 9-31, 1930. Prefaces by Francis Picabia and Leonce 

Rosenberg. 

De Onafhankelijken. Hedendaagsche Schilderkunst en Beeldhouw- 

knnst. Amsterdam, March 1932. 

Evelyn Wyld et Eyre de Lanux. 104 dessins par Francis Picabia. 
Cannes, August 19, 1932. Preface by Germainc Everling. 

Chez Leonce Rosenberg. Exposition de Dessins par Francis 
Picabia. Paris, December 1-24, 1932. Poem by Gertrude Stein 
translated by Marcel Duchamp. 

Galerie Vignon. Exposition des oeuvres de Francis Picabia. Paris, 
November 9-23, 1933. 

Art Institute of Chicago. A Century of Progress. 1933. 
Galerie Alexandre III. Catalogue des Aquarelles et dessins coutposaut 
1' Atelier de Francis Picabia. Public sale. Cannes, August iS, 1934. 
Preface by Maurice Mignon. 

Galerie Vignon. Francis Picabia, ses oeuvres recentes. Paris, 
October 25-November 6, 1934. 

Valentin Gallery. Recent Paintings by Francis Picabia. New York, 
November 5-24, 1934. Preface by Gertrude Stein. 

Galerie Jeanne Bucher. Exposition Picabia. Paris, March 1935. 
Not verified. 

The Arts Club of Chicago. Paintings by Francis Picabia. January 
3-25, 1936. Poem by Gertrude Stein. 

Museum of Modern Art. Cubism and Abstract Art. New York, 

March 2-April 19, 1936. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Ed. 

Museum of Modern Art. Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism. New 

York, December 7, 1936-January 17, 1937. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., 

Ed. 

Galerie d'art Duverney. Exposition Picabia. Cannes, February 
1937- 

La Galerie Serguy. Exposition Picabia. Cannes, April 1937. 
Galerie de Beaune. Francis Picabia, peinturcs Dada, paysages 
recents. Paris, November 19-December 2, 1937. Excerpts from 
earlier statements by Marcel Duchamp, Andre Breton, Jean van 
Heeckeren.Jean Cocteau, G. Ribemont-Dessaignes, Vivian du 
Mas, Jacques-Henri Levesque and Gertrude Stein. 

The London Gallery Ltd. The Impact of Machines. London, 
c. May-June 1938. 

Galerie de Beaune. Exposition Picabia. Paris, November 1938. 
Preface by Albert Flament. 

Galeria de Arte Mexico. Exposicion International del Surrealismo. 
Mexico City, January-February 1940. 

La Galerie Serguy. Exposition Picabia. Cannes, April 1941. 
Preface by Gertrude Stein. 

Galerie Pasteur. Exposition Picabia. Algiers, 1941. Not verified. 

Art of This Century. Art of This Century: Objects, Drawings, 
Photographs, Paintings, Sculpture, Collages, 1910 to 1942. New 
York, 1942. Peggy Guggenheim, Ed. 

The Lounge Library. Exposition Francis Picabia et Michel Sima. 
Cannes, July 15-31, 1942. Preface by Germaine Everling. 

La Galerie Serguy. Bonnard-Matisse-Picabia. Cannes, April 10-30, 
1943- 

Galerie Art et Artisan. 100 dessins et j> portraits par F. Picabia. 
Cannes, September 7-30, 1943. 



Principautc de Monaco, office de tourisme. 50 dessins de F. 
Picabia. October 4-20, 1943. Preface by Germaine Everling. 

Philadelphia Museum of Art. History of an American, Alfred 
Stieglitz: "291" and After. March 1944-January 1947. 

Salon des Surindependants. Paris, October 1945. 

Kunsthalle Basel. Francis Picabia Sammlung Nell Walden. 
January 12-February 3, 1946. 

Galerie Dcnise Rene. Francis Picabia - Peintures sur-irrealistes. 
Paris, April 26-May 20, 1946. 

Galerie Dellevoy. Exposition Picabia. Brussels, c. May 1946. 
Not verified. 

Premier Salon des Realites Nouvelles. Paris, July 1946. 

Salon des Surindependants. Paris, October 1946. 

Galerie Colette Allendy. Francis Picabia, ceuvres de 1907 a. 1924. 
Paris, October 18-November 16, 1946. Statement by Henri 
Goetz. 

Galerie Lhote. Exposition Francis Picabia. La Rochellc, January 
10-20, 1947. 

Galerie des Etats-Unis. Exposition Germaine Callibert et Francis 
Picabia. Cannes, February 21-March 13, 1947. Preface by 
Germaine Everling. 

The London Gallery. The Cubist Spirit in its Time. London, 
March 18-May 3, 1947. 

Galerie Colette Allendy. Exposition Picabia. Paris, May 30- 
June 23, 1947. Preface by Francis Picabia. 

Museum of Modern Art. Alfred Stieglitz Exhibition: His Collec- 
tion. New York, June 10-August 31, 1947. 

Salon des Realites Nouvelles. Paris, July 1947. Statement by 
Francis Picabia. 

Galerie Lhote. Francis Picabia. La Rochelle, October 11-22, 1947. 

Galerie Colette Allendy. HWPSMTB. Paris, April 22, 194S. 
Statement by Francis Picabia. 

Galerie du Luxembourg. Exposition Picabia. Peintures recents. 
Paris, April 11-May 8, 1948. Preface by Francis Picabia. 

Galerie des Deux-lles. Francis Picabia, ceuvres de 1948. Paris, 
November 15-December 4, 1948. Statement by Michel Seuphor. 

Galerie Rene Drouin. 491, 50 ans de plaisir. Paris, March 4-26, 
1949. Contributions by multiple authors, see bibliography. 

Galerie des Deux-lles. Picabia Point. Paris, December 12-31, 
1949. Statement by Michel Seuphor. 

Art Institute of Chicago. Twentieth Century Art from The Louise 
and Walter Arensberg Collection. October 20-Dccember 18, 1949. 
Rose Fried Gallery. The Pinacotheca. Picabia. New York, 
February 1950. Preface by Jean Arp. 

Galerie Apollo. Picabia. Brussels, October 18-November 3, 1950. 
Galerie Colette Allendy. Francis Picabia. Paris, December 13, 
1950-January 12, 1951. Preface by Francis Picabia. 
Yale University. Gertrude Stein's "Pictures for a Picture." New 
Haven, February 11-March 11, 1951. 

Rose Fried Gallery. Some Areas of Search. New York, May- 
June 195 1. 

Galerie Artiste et Artisan. Quelques Oeuvres de Picabia (epoque 
dada 1913-1925). Paris, November 20-December 4, 1951. 
Statement by Jacques-Henri Levesque. 

Chez P. A. B. Assortment de dessins de F. Picabia. Ales, January 
21-28, 1952. Statement by Rene Char. 
Galerie Marbach. Ausstellung Francis Picabia, Christine Bou- 
meester, Henri Goetz. Bern, March 26-April 23, 1952. 



Calorie Colette Allendy. i s toiles recents de Francis Picabia. Paris, 
December 19, 1952-January is, 1953. Statements by Andre 
Breton [?], Camille Brven, Jean Cocteau.Jean van Hceckeren, 
[acques-Henri Levesque, Michel Perrin and Michel Seuphor. 

Musee National d'Art Moderne. Le Cubisme. Paris, January 30- 
April9, 1953. 

Galerie Cravan. Hommage a Picabia. Paris, October 1953. 
Homages by Charles Estienne, Michel Tapie, Edouard Jaquer, 
Roland Penrose, Charles Dotremont and Pierre Alechinsky. 

Sidney Janis Gallery. Dada. 191 6-1 g2j. New York, April 15- 
May 9, 1953. Statements by Jean Arp, Tristan Tzara, Richard 
Huelsenbeck and Jacques-Henri Levesque. 

Walker Art Center. The Classic Tradition in Contemporary Art. 
Minneapolis, April 24-Junc 28, 1953. 

Rose Fried Gallery. Marcel Dnchamp and Francis Picabia. New 
York, December 7, 1953-January 8, 1954. 

Galerie La Boutique d'Art. Exposition Picabia. Nice, January- 
February 1954. 

The University of Michigan Museum of Art. 20th Century 
Painting and Sculpture from the Winston Collection. Ann Arbor, 
1955- 

Chateau Historique de La Napoule. Henry Clews Art Foun- 
dation. Exposition Picabia, les artistes an soleil et Jean-Gabriel 
Domergue. La Napoule, September 14-October 14, 1956. 

Galerie Furstenberg. Exposition Picabia. Paris, June 5-July 5, 1956. 

Villa Robioni. 30 toiles, gouaches, aquarelles, dessins de F. P. 
appartenant a Mine. Germaine Everling-Picabia. Nice, December 28, 
1956. 

Detroit Institute of Arts. Collecting Modern Art: Painting, 
Sculpture and Drawings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Harry 
Lewis Winston. Detroit. September 27-Novembcr 3, 1957. 
Participating museums: Virginia Museum of Art, Richmond; 
San Francisco Museum of Art; Milwaukee Art Institute; Walker 
Art Center, Minneapolis. 

Musee d'Art et d'Industrie. Art Abstrait. Saint-Etienne, April- 
May 1957. 

Galerie Knoedler. Les Soirees de Paris. Paris, May 16-June 30, 
1958. Introduction by Andre Billy; catalogue by Guy Habasque. 

Sidney Janis Gallery. X Years of Janis. New York, September 29- 
November I, 1958. 

Kunsthalle Dusscldorf. Dada, Dokumente einer Beweguug. 
September 5-October 19, 1958; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
December 23, 1958-February 2, 1959. 

The Matthiescn Gallery. Francis Picabia. London, October- 
November 1959. 

Exposition Internationale. 50 ansd'art moderne. Brussels, 1959. 

Galerie Chalette. Construction and Geometry in Painting. New 
York, March 31-June 4, i960. 

Galerie Samiaren. De Picabia tour autour. Stockholm, February 
i960. 

Galleria Schwarz. Francis Picabia. Milan, July 1-30, i960. Brief 
statements by multiple authors. 

Art Associates of Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Trojan Horse. 
i960. 

Palais Granvelle. Surrealismc et Precurseurs. Besanfon, 1961. 

Galerie Denise Rene. Art abstrait constructif. Paris, 1961. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Paintings from the 
Arensberg and Gallatin Collections of The Philadelphia Museum of 
Art. New York, February 7-April 16, 1961. 



Palais Barberini. Omaggio ad Apollinaire. Rome, December 1960- 
January 1961. 

Galerie de Paris. Les Amis de Saint-Trope:. Paris, May 2-June 10, 
1 96 1 

Moderna Museet. Rorelsc I Konsten. Stockholm, May 17- 
Scptcmber 3, 1961. 

Museum of Modern Art. The Art of Assemblage. New York, 
October 2-November 12, 1961. William C. Seitz, Ed. 

Galerie Mona Lisa. Picabia vu en transparence. Paris, November- 
December 1961. Prefaces by Georges Ribcmont-Dessaignes and 
PatrickWaldbcrg. 

Detroit Institute of Arts. French Drawings and Watercolors from 
Michigan Collections. January 1962. 

Musee Cantini. Picabia. Marseille, March 20-May 15, 1962. 
Text and catalogue by Mine. Jacques Latour and Jean- Albert 
Cartier. Statements by multiple authors from previous publica- 
tions. 

Kunsthalle Bern. Francis Picabia. July 7-September 2, 1962. 
Preface by Jean-Jacques Lebel. 

The Alan Gallery. Dnchamp, Picabia, Schwittcrs. New York, 
January 7-February 2, 1963. 

Goucher College. The Epstein Collection. Towson, Maryland, 
January 1963. 

Whitney Museum of American Art. The Decade of the Armory 
Show. New York, February 27-April 14, 1963. Participating 
museums: City Art Museum of St. Louis; Cleveland Museum 
of Art; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; 
Art Institute of Chicago; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. 
Lloyd Goodrich, Ed. 

Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, and the Henry 
Street Settlement, New York. Armory Show, 50th Anniversary 
Exhibition. Utica, February 17-March 31, 1963, and New York, 
April 6-28, 1963. Introduction by Milton W. Brown. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. 20th Century Master 
Drawings. New York, November 6, 1963-January 5, 1964. 
Participating museums: University Gallery, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis; Fogg Art Museum, Boston. 

Museum voor Schone Kunsten. Figuratie Defiguratie. Ghent, 
i964.Galerie Charpentier. Le Surrealisme: Sources, Histoire, 
Affmites. Paris, 1964. Texts by Raymond Nacenta and Patrick 
Waldberg. 

Hatton Gallery and Institute of Contemporary Arts. Francis 
Picabia. London, March-April 1964. Published by the Depart- 
ment of Fine Art, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Ronald 
Hunt, Ed. 

Michigan State University. Turn of the Century Exhibition. East 
Lansing, April 10-May 4, 1964. 

Galleria Schwarz. Picabia. Milan, May 5-June 1, 1964. 

Baltimore Museum of Art. 1914. October 6- November 15, 1964. 

Leonard Hutton Galleries. Albert Gleizes and the Section d'Or. 
New York, October 28-December 5, 1964. Texts by William 
A. Camfield and Daniel Robbins. 

Galerie Furstenberg. Francis Picabia. Paris, November 4- 
December 5, 1964. 

Galerie Louis Carre. Picabia, "Chapeau de Paillc?". Paris, 
November 4-December 4, 1964. 

Houston Museum of Fine Arts. The Heroic Years: Paris 190S- 
191./. October 20-December 8, 1965. 



Moderns Museet. Dada. Stockholm, February 3-March 27, 1966. 

La Galerie Krugier et Cie. Dada. Geneva, February 17-March 30, 
1966. Introduction by Werner Haftmann. 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art. Harbingers of Surrealism. 
February 26-March 27, 1966. Foreword by William J. Hesthal. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Gauguin and the 
Decorative Style. New York, June 23-October 23, 1966. 

M. Knoedler and Co., Inc. Seven Decades: iSg5-ig6s, Cross- 
currents in Modern Art. (Exhibition at ten New York galleries 
for the benefit of the Public Education Association), April-May 
1966. 

Annmary Brown Memorial, Brown University and the Museum 
of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. Herbert and Nannette 
Rothschild Collection. Providence, October 7-November 6, 1966. 
Catalogue by George Downing and Daniel Robbins. 

Kunsthaus Zurich. Dada. October 8-November 17, 1966; 
Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris, November 30, 1966- 
January 30, 1967. Collaboration of the Association pour l'Etude 
du Mouvement Dada, Paris. 

Sidney Janis Gallery. Two Generations. New York, January 3-27, 
1967. 

Stadtisches Museum Schloss Morsbroich Leverkusen. Picabia. 
February 7-April 2, 1967; Stedehjk van Abbemuseum, Eind- 
hoven, April 21-June 4, 1967. Texts by Rolf Wedewer, Ursula 
Wedewer-Bocker and Lothar Romain. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Seven Decades: Museum 
Collection. New York, June 28-October 1, 1967. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Painters of the Section d'Or. Buffalo, 
September 27-October 22, 1967. Text and catalogue by Richard 
V. West. 

Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna. Le Muse Inquietanti. Turin, 
November 1967-January 1968. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Plus by Minus: Today's Half 
Century. Buffalo, March 3-April 14, 1968. 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Rousseau, Redon, and 
Fantasy. New York, May 31-September 8, 1968. 

Musee National d'Art Moderne and Minister of Cultural 
Affairs. Painting in France igoo-ig6y. 1968. Participating museums: 
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York; Boston Museum of Fine Arts; Art 
Institute of Chicago; M. H. de Young Museum, San Francisco. 

Grand Palais, ygme Exposition de la Societe des Artistes Indepen- 
dants. Retrospective igos-igog. Paris, March 22-April 15, 1968. 

Museum of Modern Art. Dada, Surrealism and Their Heritage. 
New York, March 27-June 9, 1968. William S. Rubin, Ed. 
Participating museums: Los Angeles County Museum; Art 
Institute of Chicago. 

Ville de Strasbourg. V Art en Europe autour de igi8. May 8- 
September 15, 1968. 

National Gallery of Art. Paintings from the Albright-Knox Art 
Gallery. Washington, D.C. May 18-July 21, 1968. 

Museum of Modern Art. The Machine as Seen at the End of the 
Mechanical Age. New York, November 30, 1968-February 9, 
1969. K. G. Pontus Hulten, Ed. Participating museums: San 
Francisco Museum of Art; The University of St. Thomas and 
the Institute for the Arts at Rice University, Houston. 

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. log Works from the Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery. Buenos Aires, October 23-November 30, 
1969. 



Staff" 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 



THOMAS M. MESSEH 



Curator, louise averill svendsen Business Administrator, glenn h. easton, jh. 



Associate Curators, edward f. fry, 

DIANE WALDMAN 



Administrative Assistant, viola h. gleason 



Assistant Curator, margit roweh Purchasing Agent, Elizabeth m. funghini 



Librarian, mary joan hall Building Superintendent, peter g. loggin 



Technical Administrator, orrin riley Head Guard, Charles f. banach 



Preparator, saul fuerstein Public Affairs Officer, robin m. green 



Registrar, david roger anthony Membership Secretary, miriam emden 



Photographers, robert e. mates 

PAUL KATZ 



Administrative Assistant, linda konheim 



Assistant Conservator, lucy belloli Museum Auditor, agnes r. Connolly 



Photographic Credits 

Supplementary photographs 

Courtesy Pierre-Marcel Adema: pp. 2 
Courtesy Gabrielle Burfet-Picabia: pp. 3, 8 
Courtesy Galerie Louis Carre, Paris: p. 4 
Courtesy Otho St. Clair Lloyd, Barcelona: p. 6 
Courtesy Olga Picabia: pp. 6, 12 

Figures in the text 

Courtesy The Art Bulletin: Fig. 6 

Courtesy Galerie Denise Rene, Paris: Fig. 3 

Courtesy Galerie Furstenberg, Paris: Fig. 5 

James Gilbert, Houston: Fig. 28 

Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris: Fig. 15 

N. Mandel, Paris: Fig. 27 

Courtesy Olga Picabia: Fig. 31 

John D. Schift": Fig. 5 

Courtesy Seattle Art Museum. 

Eugene Fuller Memorial Collection: Fig. 22 

Courtesy Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven: Fig. 29 



Works in the Exhibition 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 

Gift of The Seymour H. Knox Foundation, Inc.: no. 24 

The Art Institute of Chicago, 

Alfred Stieglitz Collection: nos. 25, 26 

Bacci, Milan: nos. 67, 75, 102 

The Baltimore Museum of Art, 
Sadie A. May Collection: no. 45 

Serge Beguier: no. 77 

Courtesy Henri Benezit: no. 92 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh: no. 47 

Geoffrey Clements: nos. 43, 54 

A. C. Cooper, London: no. 6 

Detroit Institute of Arts: no. 21 

Courtesy Alfred Fischer, Paris: no. 84 

Courtesy Hilde Gerst: no. 7 

Galerie Cavalero, Caimes: nos. 3, 35 

Galerie de L'Elysee, Paris: nos. 12, 91 

Galerie Jean Chauvelin, Paris: no. 71 

Galerie Denise Rene, Paris: nos. 37, 52 

Galerie de Paris, Paris: no. 8 

Galerie Mona Lisa, Paris: nos. 13, 73 

Jacqueline Hyde, Paris: no. 86 

Andre Koti, Paris: no. 5 

Courtesy Mrs. Barnett Malbin 

(The Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection): nos. 56, 60 

N. Mandel, Paris: nos. 16, 19, 20, 29, 46, 53, 59, 88 

Robert E. Mates and Paul Katz, New York: 
nos. 2, 4, 9, 10, 22, 23, 39, 50, 51, 63, 72 

Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 

The Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949: nos. 27, 28, 41, 42 

Museum of Modern Art, New York: no. 40 

The Philadelphia Museum of Art, 

The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection: nos. 33, 34 

Photo Piccardy, Grenoble: no. 89 

Nathan Rabin, New York: no. 59 

Service du Documentation Photographique 
des Musees Nationaux: nos. 15, 31 

Tate Gallery, London: no. 76 

Marc Vaux: nos. 68, 90, 103 

Paul Weidrich for The Arts Club of Chicago: no. 44 

Michel Waldberg: no. 80 

Yale University Art Gallery, 

Collection Societe Anonymc, New Haven: no. 55 



exhibition 70/4 5,000 copies of this book designed by Malcolm Grear have 

been printed by Joh. Enschede en Zonen, Haarlem, The 
Netherlands in September 1970 for the Trustees of The Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Foundation on the occasion of the exhibition 
"Francis Picabia: A Retrospective Exhibition" 







PHOTOGKAni IF